Measuring teamwork and conflict among emergency medical technician personnel

P. Daniel Patterson, Matthew D. Weaver, Sallie J. Weaver, Michael A. Rosen, Gergana Todorova, Laurie R. Weingart, David Krackhardt, Judith R. Lave, Robert M. Arnold, Donald M. Yealy, Eduardo Salas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objective. We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among emergency medical technician (EMT) partnerships. Methods. We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool (EMT-TEAMWORK). We performed a series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. Results. We received 687 completed surveys. The EFAs identified a nine-factor solution. We labeled these factors 1) Team Orientation, 2) Team Structure & Leadership, 3) Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, 4) Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, 5) Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, 6) Process Conflict, 7) Strong Task Conflict, 8) Mild Task Conflict, and 9) Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short-form (30-item SF) and long-form (45-item LF) version. The CFAs determined that both the SF and the LF possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties, with a mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all nine factors (mean = 0.84; minimum = 0.78, maximum = 0.94). The mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF was 0.87 (minimum = 0.79, maximum = 0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all nine factors and the global score for the SF and LF. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, standard deviation [[SD]] 21.5, SF; 49.3, SD 19.8, LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7, SD 18.1, for both SF and LF). Conclusions: We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)98-108
Number of pages11
JournalPrehospital Emergency Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • conflict
  • emergency medical technicians
  • safety
  • survey
  • teamwork

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency


Dive into the research topics of 'Measuring teamwork and conflict among emergency medical technician personnel'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this