Measuring attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: Introduce a novel method for objectively evaluating attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities using an established metric of attention. Methods: The SMI eye-tracker system (Senso-Motoric Inc., Boston, MA) was used to record the eye movement patterns, called scanpaths, of eight näive observers gazing at pictures of faces with or without peripheral surgical deformities. The scanpaths of observers gazing on those novel faces were compared, and the fixation durations for different facial regions were compared between faces. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean fixation times between the faces considered normal and those considered abnormal (those with an obvious defect). When multivariate analysis of variance was performed with dependent variables total fixation time, fixation time in central triangle, and fixation time in the defect region and the independent variable face, all four tests were highly statistically significant. When univariate analysis of variance was performed to test the hypothesis that defect fixation times varied by face, the results were highly statistically significant (F=8.79, P=.0003). Conclusions: Observers gazing on faces typically focus their attention on discriminating features, such as eyes, nose, and mouth. The well-established method of eye movement recordings was applied in a novel way to provide quantitative data showing changes in observer gaze patterns to focus on deformities. These gaze patterns are a direct reflection of observer attention. This is the first objective method to quantify the amount of distraction caused by peripheral facial deformities and may provide insight into the perception of facial deformity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)459-465
Number of pages7
JournalLaryngoscope
Volume119
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2009

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Eye Movements
Analysis of Variance
Attentional Bias
Nose
Mouth
Multivariate Analysis

Keywords

  • Facial attention
  • Facial deformity
  • Facial disfigurement
  • Facial perception
  • Measure of facial deformity
  • Saccades
  • Scanpaths

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Measuring attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities",
abstract = "Objectives: Introduce a novel method for objectively evaluating attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities using an established metric of attention. Methods: The SMI eye-tracker system (Senso-Motoric Inc., Boston, MA) was used to record the eye movement patterns, called scanpaths, of eight n{\"a}ive observers gazing at pictures of faces with or without peripheral surgical deformities. The scanpaths of observers gazing on those novel faces were compared, and the fixation durations for different facial regions were compared between faces. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean fixation times between the faces considered normal and those considered abnormal (those with an obvious defect). When multivariate analysis of variance was performed with dependent variables total fixation time, fixation time in central triangle, and fixation time in the defect region and the independent variable face, all four tests were highly statistically significant. When univariate analysis of variance was performed to test the hypothesis that defect fixation times varied by face, the results were highly statistically significant (F=8.79, P=.0003). Conclusions: Observers gazing on faces typically focus their attention on discriminating features, such as eyes, nose, and mouth. The well-established method of eye movement recordings was applied in a novel way to provide quantitative data showing changes in observer gaze patterns to focus on deformities. These gaze patterns are a direct reflection of observer attention. This is the first objective method to quantify the amount of distraction caused by peripheral facial deformities and may provide insight into the perception of facial deformity.",
keywords = "Facial attention, Facial deformity, Facial disfigurement, Facial perception, Measure of facial deformity, Saccades, Scanpaths",
author = "Ishii, {Lisa Earnest} and Carey, {John P} and Byrne, {Patrick J} and Zee, {David Samuel} and Masaru Ishii",
year = "2009",
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language = "English (US)",
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pages = "459--465",
journal = "Laryngoscope",
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AU - Ishii, Lisa Earnest

AU - Carey, John P

AU - Byrne, Patrick J

AU - Zee, David Samuel

AU - Ishii, Masaru

PY - 2009/3

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N2 - Objectives: Introduce a novel method for objectively evaluating attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities using an established metric of attention. Methods: The SMI eye-tracker system (Senso-Motoric Inc., Boston, MA) was used to record the eye movement patterns, called scanpaths, of eight näive observers gazing at pictures of faces with or without peripheral surgical deformities. The scanpaths of observers gazing on those novel faces were compared, and the fixation durations for different facial regions were compared between faces. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean fixation times between the faces considered normal and those considered abnormal (those with an obvious defect). When multivariate analysis of variance was performed with dependent variables total fixation time, fixation time in central triangle, and fixation time in the defect region and the independent variable face, all four tests were highly statistically significant. When univariate analysis of variance was performed to test the hypothesis that defect fixation times varied by face, the results were highly statistically significant (F=8.79, P=.0003). Conclusions: Observers gazing on faces typically focus their attention on discriminating features, such as eyes, nose, and mouth. The well-established method of eye movement recordings was applied in a novel way to provide quantitative data showing changes in observer gaze patterns to focus on deformities. These gaze patterns are a direct reflection of observer attention. This is the first objective method to quantify the amount of distraction caused by peripheral facial deformities and may provide insight into the perception of facial deformity.

AB - Objectives: Introduce a novel method for objectively evaluating attentional bias to peripheral facial deformities using an established metric of attention. Methods: The SMI eye-tracker system (Senso-Motoric Inc., Boston, MA) was used to record the eye movement patterns, called scanpaths, of eight näive observers gazing at pictures of faces with or without peripheral surgical deformities. The scanpaths of observers gazing on those novel faces were compared, and the fixation durations for different facial regions were compared between faces. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean fixation times between the faces considered normal and those considered abnormal (those with an obvious defect). When multivariate analysis of variance was performed with dependent variables total fixation time, fixation time in central triangle, and fixation time in the defect region and the independent variable face, all four tests were highly statistically significant. When univariate analysis of variance was performed to test the hypothesis that defect fixation times varied by face, the results were highly statistically significant (F=8.79, P=.0003). Conclusions: Observers gazing on faces typically focus their attention on discriminating features, such as eyes, nose, and mouth. The well-established method of eye movement recordings was applied in a novel way to provide quantitative data showing changes in observer gaze patterns to focus on deformities. These gaze patterns are a direct reflection of observer attention. This is the first objective method to quantify the amount of distraction caused by peripheral facial deformities and may provide insight into the perception of facial deformity.

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