Meanings of Care by Bereaved Relatives of Homicide Victims in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Implications for Nursing

Anne H. Outwater, Edith A.M. Tarimo, June E. Miller, Jacqueline C. Campbell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The purpose was to describe the meanings of care, kutunza, for the deceased and the relatives of homicide victims. The secondary aim was to identify ways in which nurses could best console the families. Method: An ethnonursing method was employed. Relatives of homicide victims in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were interviewed at a mortuary, using an interview guide constructed with Leininger's enablers as major elements. Content analysis was performed according to Leininger's phases of ethnonursing analysis of qualitative data. Findings: Families of 30 homicide victims were studied. The mean age of the victims was 30.7 years, range 17 to 47 years. All victims, except 1, were male. The informants included 29 relatives and two close friends. The following four themes were identified: (a) providing basic needs, (b) paying attention as if one were kin, (c) consoling through gathering, and (d) caring for each other. Conclusions: Care is manifested by respectful attention to the preparation of the deceased and by providing an environment by which the community can gather to console the bereaved family. Implications for Nursing: Respectful preparation of the deceased's body is essential. Nurses can provide emotional support to the families and find an area where the extended family can grieve and console each other.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)397-405
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Transcultural Nursing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2012


  • Leininger
  • Swahili
  • Tanzania
  • end-of-life care
  • ethnonursing
  • homicide victims
  • transcultural nursing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)

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