Maturation of the fetal human choriocapillaris

Takayuki Baba, Rhonda Grebe, Takuya Hasegawa, Imran Bhutto, Carol Merges, D. Scott McLeod, Gerard Anthony Lutty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to examine the structural and functional maturation of the choriocapillaris (CC) and to determine when fenestrations form, the capillaries are invested with pericytes, and the endothelial cells (ECs) became functional. METHODS. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryopreserved sections of embryonic/fetal human eyes from 7 to 22 weeks' gestation (WG), using antibodies against PAL-E, PV-1 (fenestrations), carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV), eNOS, and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and NG2 (two pericyte markers) and the EC marker (CD31). Alkaline phosphatase (APase) enzymatic activity was demonstrated by enzyme histochemistry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on eyes at 11, 14, 16, and 22 WG. Adult human eyes were used as the positive control. RESULTS. All EC markers were present in the CC by 7 WG. PAL-E, CA IV, and eNOS immunoreactivities and APase activity were present in the CC by 7 to 9 WG. TEM analysis demonstrated how structurally immature this vasculature was, even at 11 WG: no basement membrane, absence of pericytes, and poorly formed lumens that were filled with filopodia. The few fenestrations that were observed were often present within the luminal space in the filopodia. Contiguous fenestrations and significant PV-1 were not observed until 21 to 22 WG. αSMA was prominent at 22 WG, and the maturation of pericytes was confirmed by TEM. CONCLUSIONS. It appears that ECs and their precursors express enzymes present in adult CC well before they are structurally mature. Although ECs make tight junctions early in development, contiguous fenestrations and mature pericytes occur much later in development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3503-3511
Number of pages9
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume50
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

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Pericytes
Pregnancy
Endothelial Cells
Carbonic Anhydrase IV
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Pseudopodia
Smooth Muscle
Alkaline Phosphatase
Actins
Enzyme Precursors
Tight Junctions
Basement Membrane
Immunohistochemistry
Antibodies
Enzymes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Maturation of the fetal human choriocapillaris. / Baba, Takayuki; Grebe, Rhonda; Hasegawa, Takuya; Bhutto, Imran; Merges, Carol; Scott McLeod, D.; Lutty, Gerard Anthony.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 50, No. 7, 2009, p. 3503-3511.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Baba, T, Grebe, R, Hasegawa, T, Bhutto, I, Merges, C, Scott McLeod, D & Lutty, GA 2009, 'Maturation of the fetal human choriocapillaris', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 3503-3511. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-2614
Baba, Takayuki ; Grebe, Rhonda ; Hasegawa, Takuya ; Bhutto, Imran ; Merges, Carol ; Scott McLeod, D. ; Lutty, Gerard Anthony. / Maturation of the fetal human choriocapillaris. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2009 ; Vol. 50, No. 7. pp. 3503-3511.
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T1 - Maturation of the fetal human choriocapillaris

AU - Baba, Takayuki

AU - Grebe, Rhonda

AU - Hasegawa, Takuya

AU - Bhutto, Imran

AU - Merges, Carol

AU - Scott McLeod, D.

AU - Lutty, Gerard Anthony

PY - 2009

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N2 - PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to examine the structural and functional maturation of the choriocapillaris (CC) and to determine when fenestrations form, the capillaries are invested with pericytes, and the endothelial cells (ECs) became functional. METHODS. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryopreserved sections of embryonic/fetal human eyes from 7 to 22 weeks' gestation (WG), using antibodies against PAL-E, PV-1 (fenestrations), carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV), eNOS, and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and NG2 (two pericyte markers) and the EC marker (CD31). Alkaline phosphatase (APase) enzymatic activity was demonstrated by enzyme histochemistry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on eyes at 11, 14, 16, and 22 WG. Adult human eyes were used as the positive control. RESULTS. All EC markers were present in the CC by 7 WG. PAL-E, CA IV, and eNOS immunoreactivities and APase activity were present in the CC by 7 to 9 WG. TEM analysis demonstrated how structurally immature this vasculature was, even at 11 WG: no basement membrane, absence of pericytes, and poorly formed lumens that were filled with filopodia. The few fenestrations that were observed were often present within the luminal space in the filopodia. Contiguous fenestrations and significant PV-1 were not observed until 21 to 22 WG. αSMA was prominent at 22 WG, and the maturation of pericytes was confirmed by TEM. CONCLUSIONS. It appears that ECs and their precursors express enzymes present in adult CC well before they are structurally mature. Although ECs make tight junctions early in development, contiguous fenestrations and mature pericytes occur much later in development.

AB - PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to examine the structural and functional maturation of the choriocapillaris (CC) and to determine when fenestrations form, the capillaries are invested with pericytes, and the endothelial cells (ECs) became functional. METHODS. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryopreserved sections of embryonic/fetal human eyes from 7 to 22 weeks' gestation (WG), using antibodies against PAL-E, PV-1 (fenestrations), carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV), eNOS, and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and NG2 (two pericyte markers) and the EC marker (CD31). Alkaline phosphatase (APase) enzymatic activity was demonstrated by enzyme histochemistry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on eyes at 11, 14, 16, and 22 WG. Adult human eyes were used as the positive control. RESULTS. All EC markers were present in the CC by 7 WG. PAL-E, CA IV, and eNOS immunoreactivities and APase activity were present in the CC by 7 to 9 WG. TEM analysis demonstrated how structurally immature this vasculature was, even at 11 WG: no basement membrane, absence of pericytes, and poorly formed lumens that were filled with filopodia. The few fenestrations that were observed were often present within the luminal space in the filopodia. Contiguous fenestrations and significant PV-1 were not observed until 21 to 22 WG. αSMA was prominent at 22 WG, and the maturation of pericytes was confirmed by TEM. CONCLUSIONS. It appears that ECs and their precursors express enzymes present in adult CC well before they are structurally mature. Although ECs make tight junctions early in development, contiguous fenestrations and mature pericytes occur much later in development.

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