Maternal low birth weight and adverse perinatal outcomes: The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil

Maria P. Vélez, Iná S. Santos, Alicia Matijasevich, Denise Gigante, Helen Gonçalves, Fernando C. Barros, Cesar G. Victora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective. To explore the association between maternal low birth weight (LBW) and adverse perinatal outcomes and to discriminate between confounders and mediating factors of these associations in a population-based birth cohort of Southern Brazil. Methods. Data from 794 female members of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study known to have delivered a live-born singleton offspring up to December 2004 were analyzed. Maternal birth weights were recorded in 1982. The associations between maternal and offspring characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. Confounding was tested for socioeconomic, demographic, and psychosocial factors. Maternal anthropometric characteristics and hypertensive diseases during pregnancy were considered mediating factors. Results. An increase of 100 grams (g) in mothers' birth weight predicted a gain of 21 g in their infants' birth weight (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.0-29.0 g, P <0.001). Maternal LBW was associated with offspring LBW (prevalence ratio (PR) 2.28 (95% CI 1.34-3.89), P = 0.002), preterm birth (PR 1.78 (95% CI 1.12-2.81), P = 0.01), and small for gestational age (SGA) (PR 1.93 (95% CI 1.14-3.26), P = 0.01). A causal chain linking maternal LBW and offspring SGA was mediated by maternal prepregnancy weight. Conclusion. Offspring of young women born with LBW are more likely to be LBW, preterm, and SGA. Public health strategies aimed at decreasing the frequency of LBW are necessary to reduce the perpetuation of adverse perinatal outcomes in later generations. The intermediate role of prepregnancy weight among LBW women opens a promising window to decreasing the prevalence of SGA in similar populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)112-119
Number of pages8
JournalRevista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health
Volume26
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Birth weight
  • Brazil
  • Cohort studies
  • Infant, low birth weight
  • Infant, premature
  • Infant, small for gestational age

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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