Maternal immunologic and virologic risk factors for infant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: Findings from the Women and Infants Transmission Study

Jane Pitt, Donald Brambilla, Pat Reichelderfer, Alan Landay, Kenneth McIntosh, David Burns, George V. Hillyer, Hermann Mendez, Mary Glenn Fowler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Maternal virus load of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and maternal immunity are both associated with risk of an infected infant. The interrelationship of these two variables in describing that risk was assessed in a multisite study of 475 mother-infant pairs. Infant infection was associated with low CD4 cell percentage, high CD8, CD8/CD38, and CDS/DR cell percentages, persistently positive HIV-1 cultures, and high HIV-1 titer (P < .001, .001, .005, .006, .001, and .013, respectively). The association of CD4 cell percentage and increased CD8, CD8/CD38, and CD8/DR cell percentages with transmission was restricted to the 42% of women whose HIV-1 cultures were not persistently positive (all P < .001). Women with at least 1 negative culture and high CD4 cell percentage or low CD8 cell percentage were at very low risk (0-4%) of transmitting HIV-1, while those with always positive cultures transmitted at a high rate (18%-27%), regardless of immune status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)567-575
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume175
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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