Markers of impaired motor and cognitive volition in Parkinson's disease: Correlates of dopamine dysregulation syndrome, impulse control disorder, and dyskinesias

Jared T. Hinkle, Kate Perepezko, Liana S. Rosenthal, Kelly A. Mills, Alexander Pantelyat, Zoltan Mari, Laura Tochen, Jee Yun Bang, Medha Gudavalli, Nadine Yoritomo, Ankur Butala, Catherine C. Bakker, Vanessa Johnson, Emile Moukheiber, Ted M. Dawson, Gregory M. Pontone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Introduction: Dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be associated with both motoric (e.g., dyskinesias) and neuropsychiatric adverse effects. Examples of the latter include Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome (DDS) and impulse control disorder (ICD), which are separate but related behavioral/psychiatric complications of treatment in PD. Dysregulation of volition characterizes both dyskinesias and DDS/ICD; thus, we analyzed potential disease-related correlates in a large PD cohort. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 654 participants collected through the NINDS Parkinson's Disease Biomarkers Program. DDS/ICD symptoms and dyskinesias were assessed using the Movement Disorders Society (revised) Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Potential associated variables were selected from PD-validated or PD-specific scales of neuropsychiatric or motoric status. Multivariable models with DDS/ICD or dyskinesia presence outcomes were produced with backward stepwise regression to identify factors independently associated with DDS/ICD and/or dyskinesias. Results: Fifty-three (8.1%) participants endorsed DDS and/or ICD symptoms and 150 (22.9%) were dyskinetic. In multivariable analysis, psychosis was independently associated with both dyskinesias (p = 0.006) and DDS/ICD (p < 0.001). Unpredictable motor fluctuations (p = 0.026) and depression (p = 0.023) were also associated with DDS/ICD; female sex (p = 0.025), low tremor score (p = 0.001) and high akinesia-rigidity score (p < 0.001) were associated with dyskinesias. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that psychosis may be an important marker of impaired volition across motor and cognitive domains. Unpredictable motor fluctuations, psychosis, and depression may together comprise a phenotypic profile of patients at increased risk for DDS/ICD. Similarly, dyskinetic PD patients should be closely monitored for psychotic symptoms and treated appropriately.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)50-56
Number of pages7
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
StatePublished - Feb 2018


  • DDS
  • Depression
  • Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome
  • Dyskinesias
  • Hallucinations
  • ICD
  • Impulse control disorders
  • Motor subtypes
  • Parkinson's disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Markers of impaired motor and cognitive volition in Parkinson's disease: Correlates of dopamine dysregulation syndrome, impulse control disorder, and dyskinesias'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this