Manganese-enhanced MRI offers correlation with severity of spinal cord injury in experimental models

Nikolay L. Martirosyan, Gregory H. Turner, Jason Kaufman, Arpan A. Patel, Evgenii Belykh, M. Yashar S. Kalani, Nicholas Theodore, Mark C. Preul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are clinically challenging, because neural regeneration after cord damage is unknown. In SCI animal models, regeneration is evaluated histologically, requiring animal sacrifice. Noninvasive techniques are needed to detect longitudinal SCI changes. Objective: To compare manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI [MEMRI]) in hemisection and transection of SCI rat models with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and histology. Methods: Rats underwent T9 spinal cord transection (n=6), hemisection (n=6), or laminectomy without SCI (controls, n=6). One-half of each group received lateral ventricle MnCl2 injections 24 hours later. Conventional DTI or T1-weighted MRI was performed 84 hours post-surgery. MEMRI signal intensity ratio above and below the SCI level was calculated. Fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements were taken 1 cm rostral to the SCI. The percentage of FA change was calculated 10 mm rostral to the SCI epicenter, between FA at the dorsal column lesion normalized to a lateral area without FA change. Myelin load (percentage difference) among groups was analyzed by histology. Results: In transection and hemisection groups, mean MEMRI ratios were 0.62 and 0.87, respectively, versus 0.99 in controls (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively); mean FA decreases were 67.5% and 40.1%, respectively, compared with a 6.1% increase in controls (P=0.002 and P=0.019, respectively). Mean myelin load decreased by 38.8% (transection) and 51.8% (hemisection) compared to controls (99.1%) (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were -0.94 for MEMRI ratio and FA changes and 0.87 for MEMRI and myelin load. Conclusion: MEMERI results correlated to SCI severity measured by FA and myelin load. MEMRI is a useful noninvasive tool to assess neuronal damage after SCI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-147
Number of pages9
JournalOpen Neuroimaging Journal
Volume10
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 30 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Manganese
Spinal Cord Injuries
Theoretical Models
Anisotropy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Myelin Sheath
Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Regeneration
Histology
Laminectomy
Lateral Ventricles
Animal Models
Injections

Keywords

  • Diffusion tensor imaging
  • Fractional anisotropy
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Manganese
  • Manganese-enhanced MRI
  • Spinal cord
  • Spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Martirosyan, N. L., Turner, G. H., Kaufman, J., Patel, A. A., Belykh, E., Kalani, M. Y. S., ... Preul, M. C. (2016). Manganese-enhanced MRI offers correlation with severity of spinal cord injury in experimental models. Open Neuroimaging Journal, 10, 139-147. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874440001610010139

Manganese-enhanced MRI offers correlation with severity of spinal cord injury in experimental models. / Martirosyan, Nikolay L.; Turner, Gregory H.; Kaufman, Jason; Patel, Arpan A.; Belykh, Evgenii; Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Theodore, Nicholas; Preul, Mark C.

In: Open Neuroimaging Journal, Vol. 10, 30.11.2016, p. 139-147.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Martirosyan, NL, Turner, GH, Kaufman, J, Patel, AA, Belykh, E, Kalani, MYS, Theodore, N & Preul, MC 2016, 'Manganese-enhanced MRI offers correlation with severity of spinal cord injury in experimental models', Open Neuroimaging Journal, vol. 10, pp. 139-147. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874440001610010139
Martirosyan, Nikolay L. ; Turner, Gregory H. ; Kaufman, Jason ; Patel, Arpan A. ; Belykh, Evgenii ; Kalani, M. Yashar S. ; Theodore, Nicholas ; Preul, Mark C. / Manganese-enhanced MRI offers correlation with severity of spinal cord injury in experimental models. In: Open Neuroimaging Journal. 2016 ; Vol. 10. pp. 139-147.
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abstract = "Background: Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are clinically challenging, because neural regeneration after cord damage is unknown. In SCI animal models, regeneration is evaluated histologically, requiring animal sacrifice. Noninvasive techniques are needed to detect longitudinal SCI changes. Objective: To compare manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI [MEMRI]) in hemisection and transection of SCI rat models with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and histology. Methods: Rats underwent T9 spinal cord transection (n=6), hemisection (n=6), or laminectomy without SCI (controls, n=6). One-half of each group received lateral ventricle MnCl2 injections 24 hours later. Conventional DTI or T1-weighted MRI was performed 84 hours post-surgery. MEMRI signal intensity ratio above and below the SCI level was calculated. Fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements were taken 1 cm rostral to the SCI. The percentage of FA change was calculated 10 mm rostral to the SCI epicenter, between FA at the dorsal column lesion normalized to a lateral area without FA change. Myelin load (percentage difference) among groups was analyzed by histology. Results: In transection and hemisection groups, mean MEMRI ratios were 0.62 and 0.87, respectively, versus 0.99 in controls (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively); mean FA decreases were 67.5{\%} and 40.1{\%}, respectively, compared with a 6.1{\%} increase in controls (P=0.002 and P=0.019, respectively). Mean myelin load decreased by 38.8{\%} (transection) and 51.8{\%} (hemisection) compared to controls (99.1{\%}) (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were -0.94 for MEMRI ratio and FA changes and 0.87 for MEMRI and myelin load. Conclusion: MEMERI results correlated to SCI severity measured by FA and myelin load. MEMRI is a useful noninvasive tool to assess neuronal damage after SCI.",
keywords = "Diffusion tensor imaging, Fractional anisotropy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Manganese, Manganese-enhanced MRI, Spinal cord, Spinal cord injury",
author = "Martirosyan, {Nikolay L.} and Turner, {Gregory H.} and Jason Kaufman and Patel, {Arpan A.} and Evgenii Belykh and Kalani, {M. Yashar S.} and Nicholas Theodore and Preul, {Mark C.}",
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AU - Martirosyan, Nikolay L.

AU - Turner, Gregory H.

AU - Kaufman, Jason

AU - Patel, Arpan A.

AU - Belykh, Evgenii

AU - Kalani, M. Yashar S.

AU - Theodore, Nicholas

AU - Preul, Mark C.

PY - 2016/11/30

Y1 - 2016/11/30

N2 - Background: Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are clinically challenging, because neural regeneration after cord damage is unknown. In SCI animal models, regeneration is evaluated histologically, requiring animal sacrifice. Noninvasive techniques are needed to detect longitudinal SCI changes. Objective: To compare manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI [MEMRI]) in hemisection and transection of SCI rat models with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and histology. Methods: Rats underwent T9 spinal cord transection (n=6), hemisection (n=6), or laminectomy without SCI (controls, n=6). One-half of each group received lateral ventricle MnCl2 injections 24 hours later. Conventional DTI or T1-weighted MRI was performed 84 hours post-surgery. MEMRI signal intensity ratio above and below the SCI level was calculated. Fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements were taken 1 cm rostral to the SCI. The percentage of FA change was calculated 10 mm rostral to the SCI epicenter, between FA at the dorsal column lesion normalized to a lateral area without FA change. Myelin load (percentage difference) among groups was analyzed by histology. Results: In transection and hemisection groups, mean MEMRI ratios were 0.62 and 0.87, respectively, versus 0.99 in controls (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively); mean FA decreases were 67.5% and 40.1%, respectively, compared with a 6.1% increase in controls (P=0.002 and P=0.019, respectively). Mean myelin load decreased by 38.8% (transection) and 51.8% (hemisection) compared to controls (99.1%) (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were -0.94 for MEMRI ratio and FA changes and 0.87 for MEMRI and myelin load. Conclusion: MEMERI results correlated to SCI severity measured by FA and myelin load. MEMRI is a useful noninvasive tool to assess neuronal damage after SCI.

AB - Background: Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are clinically challenging, because neural regeneration after cord damage is unknown. In SCI animal models, regeneration is evaluated histologically, requiring animal sacrifice. Noninvasive techniques are needed to detect longitudinal SCI changes. Objective: To compare manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI [MEMRI]) in hemisection and transection of SCI rat models with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and histology. Methods: Rats underwent T9 spinal cord transection (n=6), hemisection (n=6), or laminectomy without SCI (controls, n=6). One-half of each group received lateral ventricle MnCl2 injections 24 hours later. Conventional DTI or T1-weighted MRI was performed 84 hours post-surgery. MEMRI signal intensity ratio above and below the SCI level was calculated. Fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements were taken 1 cm rostral to the SCI. The percentage of FA change was calculated 10 mm rostral to the SCI epicenter, between FA at the dorsal column lesion normalized to a lateral area without FA change. Myelin load (percentage difference) among groups was analyzed by histology. Results: In transection and hemisection groups, mean MEMRI ratios were 0.62 and 0.87, respectively, versus 0.99 in controls (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively); mean FA decreases were 67.5% and 40.1%, respectively, compared with a 6.1% increase in controls (P=0.002 and P=0.019, respectively). Mean myelin load decreased by 38.8% (transection) and 51.8% (hemisection) compared to controls (99.1%) (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were -0.94 for MEMRI ratio and FA changes and 0.87 for MEMRI and myelin load. Conclusion: MEMERI results correlated to SCI severity measured by FA and myelin load. MEMRI is a useful noninvasive tool to assess neuronal damage after SCI.

KW - Diffusion tensor imaging

KW - Fractional anisotropy

KW - Magnetic resonance imaging

KW - Manganese

KW - Manganese-enhanced MRI

KW - Spinal cord

KW - Spinal cord injury

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