In this review, we examine the evidence behind nonopioid medication alternatives, peripheral nerve blocks, surgical techniques, and postoperative recovery protocols that can help minimize and effectively treat postoperative pain after minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (MIGS). Because of the depth and heterogeneity of the data, a narrative review was performed of reported interventions. A comprehensive review was performed of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database with a focus on randomized controlled trials. In the absence of literature specific to benign gynecology, similar specialty or procedural data were reviewed. A variety of nonopioid medications, surgical techniques, and postoperative recovery protocols have shown significant improvements in postoperative pain after gynecologic surgery. Nonopioid medication options that are beneficial include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and antiepileptics. Incision infiltration with local anesthesia also significantly reduces pain. Surgically, minimally invasive approaches, reducing the laparoscopic trocar size to <10 mm, and evacuating the pneumoperitoneum at the end of the case all have significant benefits. Lastly, enhanced recovery pathways show promise in reducing pain after MIGS. By using a multimodal approach, minimally invasive gynecologic surgeons can help to minimize and manage postoperative pain with less reliance on opioid pain medications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology