Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder with many symptoms responsive to treatment with dopamine agonists, anti-cholinergics and the dopamine precursor, levodopa. The cardinal features of PD include tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. There also are non-motor features that include sleep disorders, cognitive and affective dysfunction, hyposmia, pain and dysautonomia (constipation, bloating, orthostasis, urinary symptoms, sexual dysfunction, dysphagia). Among these non-motor features are signs and symptoms of visual system impairment that range from subtle examination findings to those causing severe disability. In this review we describe common PD-related abnormalities in the visual system, how they present, and potential treatments.
- Parkinson's disease
- dry eye
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience