Although cervical carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignancy associated with pregnancy, its occurrence is rare with an incidence of approximately 1 per 1,200 to 10,000 pregnancies. There are inadequate data addressing both the obstetric implications of the diagnostic evaluation and the impact of intervention on maternal and infant outcomes. Certain conclusions and recommendations, however, can be drawn from the available data. Diagnostic evaluation includes cytological screening, colposcopy and if necessary, biopsy, and selective conization. Staging of the pregnant patient is modified to minimize radiation exposure to the developing fetus. The treatment schema for patients with stage I cervical cancer in pregnancy varies with the stage of disease and gestational age at diagnosis. With close surveillance, deliberate delay of therapy to achieve fetal maturity is a reasonable option for patients with microinvasive and early stage IB cervical cancer. Tumor characteristics and maternal survival are not adversely affected by pregnancy. Conversely, cervical cancer does not seem adversely to affect pregnancy. However, timing and type of therapy may have a significant influence on the fate of the fetus. In counseling patients with cervical cancer during pregnancy, many factors must be considered, including the patient's desire for the pregnancy, stage of disease, and gestational age at diagnosis. Pregnant patients with stage I cervical cancer should be fully informed of all possible treatment options and consequences. The care of these patients should be closely coordinated by experts in perinatology and gynecologic oncology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology