Priapism is a pathological condition characterized by prolonged erection and is a potential urologic emergency. This chapter outlines the management approach to evaluating, diagnosing, and treating priapism. Key components of the evaluation include expeditious and correct classification of priapism and implementation of appropriate therapies in a timely fashion. If ischemic priapism is the etiology, then stepwise therapeutic maneuvers should be implemented to correct the compartment syndrome, reestablish blood flow, and relieve pain. Medical and surgical management options are reviewed.