In the era of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), liver disease is the second most common cause of death among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Liver disease-related deaths mostly result from chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). In addition, recent reports suggest that HCV infection may be transmitted sexually between HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Management of these conditions in HIV-infected persons requires careful consideration, balancing the potential benefits of therapy with the potential for significant treatment-related adverse effects (HCV infection) and viral resistance and/or hepatitis flares (HBV infection). Furthermore, several antiretroviral agents are active against HBV infection, including lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir, and, more recently, entecavir. Despite the complexity and potential for antiretroviral-associated hepatotoxicity, ART usually is safe for patients with viral hepatitis coinfection, and, in some cases, treatment for HIV infection may be beneficial for the liver.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health