Purpose: To report the outcomes of medical and surgical management for congenital aniridia-associated keratopathy (AAK) over a long-term follow-up period. Design: Retrospective, comparative case series. Methods: Medical records of patients diagnosed with congenital aniridia were retrospectively reviewed. Age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, AAK stage, noncorneal abnormalities, ocular surgeries, and complications were recorded. The visual acuity equivalent (VAE), approximate Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (appETDRS) letter score, was calculated using recorded Snellen visual acuities. Results: A total of 92 eyes of 47 patients (31 females) with mean age of 48.0 ± 18.0 years and mean follow-up of 78.6 ± 42.2 months were included. At the initial visit, 12 eyes (13%) were classified as Stage I AAK, 33 eyes (35.9%) were Stage II, 25 eyes (27.2%) were Stage III, 17 eyes (18.5%) were Stage IV, and 5 eyes (5.4%) were Stage V. Limbal stem cell transplantation (LSCT) and Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) were frequently performed in eyes with Stages III-V. These advanced corneal surgeries significantly improved the median (95% confidence interval [CI]) of calculated appETDRS scores from 2 (0-20) to 26 (15-41) (Snellen values, 20/20,000 to 20/300; P = 0.0004). Patients with earlier Stages (I-II) of AAK were managed medically and had stable visual acuity through their final visits (appETDRS score of 26 [20-35] to 35 [26-35]; Snellen, 20/300 to 20/200; P > 0.05). The appETDRS VAE was significantly improved from 20 (0-35) to 30 (20-55), Snellen, 20/400 to 20/250, following LSCT (P = 0.021) and from 2 (0-20) to 2 (0-41) after KPro; Snellen, 20/20,000 VAE but with improved 95% CI after follow-up (P = 0.019). Conclusions: With proper characterization and staging of AAK, individualized medical and advanced surgical interventions preserves and improves visual acuity.
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