Biliary strictures constitute 40% to 60% of the biliary complications after liver transplantation. They are more common after living donor related liver transplantation (LDLT) than orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Balloon dilation followed by multiple plastic stent insertion leads to a mean resolution rate of 84% in the treatment of ASs after OLT. Endoscopic treatment of ASs after LDLT is more difficult because of the small size of the ASs, their multiple number and peripheral location. Balloon dilation followed by multiple plastic stent insertion had a mean resolution rate of 53%. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was required in 16% to 44% of the patients. Refractory cases with complete biliary obstruction and severe stenosis, in whom the stricture could not be traversed with a guidewire, can be treated by magnetic compression anastomosis as a rescue therapy, if the anatomy of the bile ducts is suitable. In this review, we will focus on the endoscopic treatment of ASs, with special emphasis to refractory cases.
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