Mammalian folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase. 4. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of folates and analogues and regulation of folate homeostasis

Janine D. Cook, David J. Cichowicz, Sabu George, Ann M Lawler, Barry Shane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The regulation of folate and folate analogue metabolism was studied in vitro by using purified hog liver folylpolyglutamate synthetase as a model system and in vivo in cultured mammalian cells. The types of folylpolyglutamates that accumulate in vivo in hog liver, and changes in cellular folate levels and folylpolyglutamate distributions caused by physiological and nutritional factors such as changes in growth rates and methionine, folate, and vitamin B12 status, can be mimicked in vitro by using purified enzyme. Folylpolyglutamate distributions can be explained solely in terms of the substrate specificity of folylpolyglutamate synthetase and can be modeled by using kinetic parameters obtained with purified enzyme. Low levels of folylpolyglutamate synthetase activity are normally required for the cellular metabolism of folates to retainable polyglutamate forms, and consequently folate retention and concentration, while higher levels of activity are required for the synthesis of the long chain length derivatives that are found in mammalian tissues. The synthesis of very long chain derivatives, which requires tetrahydrofolate polyglutamates as substrates, is a very slow process in vivo. The slow metabolism of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to retainable polyglutamate forms causes the decreased tissue retention of folate in B12 deficiency. Although cellular folylpolyglutamate distributions change in response to nutritional and physiological modulations, it is unlikely that these changes play a regulatory role in one-carbon metabolism as folate distributions respond only slowly. 4-Aminofolates are metabolized to retainable forms at a slow rate compared to folates. Although folate accumulation by cells is not very responsive to changes in folylpolyglutamate synthetase levels and cellular glutamate concentrations, cellular accumulation of anti-folate agents would be highly responsive to any factor that changes the expression of folylpolyglutamate synthetase activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)530-539
Number of pages10
JournalBiochemistry®
Volume26
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1987

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Ligases
Folic Acid
Metabolism
Glutamic Acid
Homeostasis
Polyglutamic Acid
Liver
In Vitro Techniques
Tissue
Derivatives
Substrates
Enzymes
Vitamin B 12
Substrate Specificity
Chain length
Kinetic parameters
Methionine
Cultured Cells
Carbon
Cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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Mammalian folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase. 4. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of folates and analogues and regulation of folate homeostasis. / Cook, Janine D.; Cichowicz, David J.; George, Sabu; Lawler, Ann M; Shane, Barry.

In: Biochemistry®, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1987, p. 530-539.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cook, Janine D. ; Cichowicz, David J. ; George, Sabu ; Lawler, Ann M ; Shane, Barry. / Mammalian folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase. 4. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of folates and analogues and regulation of folate homeostasis. In: Biochemistry®. 1987 ; Vol. 26, No. 2. pp. 530-539.
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