Malnutrition-inflammation modifies the relationship of cholesterol with cardiovascular disease

Gabriel Contreras, Bo Hu, Brad C. Astor, Tom Greene, Thomas Erlinger, John W. Kusek, Michael Lipkowitz, Julia A. Lewis, Otelio S. Randall, Lee Hebert, Jackson T. Wright, Cynthia A. Kendrick, Jennifer Gassman, George Bakris, Joel D. Kopple, Lawrence J. Appel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In moderate and severe CKD, the association of cholesterol with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) is weak. We examined whether malnutrition or inflammation (M-I) modifies the risk relationship between cholesterol levels and CVD events in African Americans with hypertensive CKD and a GFR between 20 and 65 ml/min per 1.73 m2. We stratified 990 participants by the presence or absence of M-I, defined as body mass index <23 kg/m2 or C-reactive protein >10 mg/L at baseline. The primary composite outcome included cardiovascular death or first hospitalization for coronary artery disease, stroke, or congestive heart failure occurring during a median follow-up of 77 months. Baseline total cholesterol (212 ± 48 versus 212 ± 44 mg/dl) and overall incidence of the primary CVD outcome (19 versus 21%) were similar in participants with (n = 304) and without (n = 686) M-I. In adjusted analyses, the CVD composite outcome exhibited a significantly stronger relationship with total cholesterol for participants without M-I than for participants with M-I at baseline (P < 0.02). In the non-M-I group, the cholesterol-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for CVD increased progressively across cholesterol levels: HR = 1.19 [95% CI; 0.77, 1.84] and 2.18 [1.43, 3.33] in participants with cholesterol 200 to 239 and ≥240 mg/dl, respectively (reference: cholesterol <200). In the M-I group, the corresponding HRs did not vary significantly by cholesterol level. In conclusion, the presence of M-I modifies the risk relationship between cholesterol level and CVD in African Americans with hypertensive CKD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2131-2142
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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