Male sex is associated with worse microbiological and clinical outcomes following tuberculosis treatment: A retrospective cohort study, a systematic review of the literature, and meta-analysis

Vignesh Chidambaram, Nyan Lynn Tun, Marie Gilbert Majella, Jennie Ruelas Castillo, Samuel K. Ayeh, Amudha Kumar, Pranita Neupane, Ranjith Kumar Sivakumar, Ei Phyo Win, Enoch J. Abbey, Siqing Wang, Alyssa Zimmerman, Jaime Blanck, Akshay Gupte, Jann Yuan Wang, Petros C. Karakousis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Although the incidence of tuberculosis is higher in men than in women, the relationship of sex with tuberculosis treatment outcomes has not been adequately studied. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study and a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies during the last 10 years to assess sex differences in clinical and microbiological outcomes in tuberculosis. Results: In our cohort of 2894 Taiwanese patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (1975 male and 919 female), male patients had higher adjusted hazards of 9-month mortality due to all causes (hazard ratio, 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.98]) and infections (1.70 [1.09-2.64]) and higher adjusted odds of 2-month sputum culture positivity (odds ratio [OR], 1.56 [95% CI, 1.05-2.33]) compared with female patients. Smear positivity at 2 months did not differ significantly (OR, 1.27 [95% CI,. 71-2.27]) between the sexes. Among 7896 articles retrieved, 398 were included in our systematic review describing a total of 3 957 216 patients. The odds of all-cause mortality were higher in men than in women in the pooled unadjusted (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.19-1.34]) and adjusted (1.31 [1.18-1.45]) analyses. Men had higher pooled odds of sputum culture (OR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.14-1.81]) and sputum smear (1.58 [1.41-1.77]) positivity, both at the end of the intensive phase and on completion of treatment. Conclusions: Our retrospective cohort showed that male patients with tuberculosis have higher 9-month all-cause and infection-related mortality, with higher 2-month sputum culture positivity after adjustment for confounding factors. In our meta-analysis, male patients showed higher all-cause and tuberculosis-related mortality and higher sputum culture and smear positivity rates during and after tuberculosis treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1580-1588
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume73
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021

Keywords

  • Culture
  • Female
  • HIV
  • Mortality
  • Sputum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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