Male experiences of unintended pregnancy

Characteristics and prevalence

Anna Kagesten, Nathalie Bajos, Aline Bohet, Caroline Moreau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics and circumstances of pregnancies men report as unintended in France? SUMMARY ANSWER Pregnancies reported as unintended were most prevalent among young men with insecure financial situations, less stable relationships and inconsistent use of contraception or false assumptions about their partner's use of contraception. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Efforts to involve men in family planning have increased over the last decade; however, little is known about factors associated with men's pregnancy intentions and associated contraceptive behaviours. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The data presented in this study were drawn from the nationally representative FECOND study, a population-based survey conducted in France in 2010. The sample comprised 8675 individuals (3373 men), aged 15-49 years, who responded to a telephone interview about socio-demographics and topics related to sexual and reproductive health. The total refusal rate was 20%. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS This study included 2997 men, of whom 664 reported 893 recent pregnancies (in the 5 years preceding the survey). Multivariate Poisson's regression with population-Averaged marginal effects was applied to assess the individual and contextual factors associated with men's intentions for recent pregnancies. The contraceptive circumstances leading to the unintended pregnancies were also assessed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Of all heterosexually active men, 5% reported they had experienced an unintended pregnancy with a partner in the last 5 years. A total of 20% of recent pregnancies reported by men were qualified to be unintended, of which 45% ended in induced abortion. Of pregnancies following a previous unintended pregnancy, 68% were themselves unintended. Among all heterosexually active men, recent experience of an unintended pregnancy was related to age, mother's education, age at first sex, parity, contraceptive method history, lifetime number of female partners and the relationship situation at the time of survey. Recent unintended pregnancies were also related to pregnancy order and to the financial and professional situation at the time of conception. The majority of unintended pregnancies occurred when men or their partners were using contraceptives; 58% of contraceptive users considered that the pregnancy was due to inconsistent use and 39% considered that it resulted from method failure. Half of the non-users who reported an unintended pregnancy thought that their partner was using a contraceptive method. The relative risk of non-use of a contraceptive method during the month of conception of a recent unintended pregnancy was higher among those without a high school degree (IRR = 2.9, CI 1.6, 5.2) and higher among men for whom the pregnancy interfered with education (IRR = 1.8, CI 1.0, 3.1) or work (IRR = 1.9, CI 1.1, 3.6). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION From the perspective of men, the unintended pregnancy rates may be underestimated due to a combination of underreporting of abortion and post-rationalization of birth intentions. Our use of a dichotomous measure of unintended pregnancy is unlikely to fully capture the multidimensional construct of pregnancy intentions. WIDER IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS These results call for gender-inclusive family planning programmes, which fully engage men as active participants in their own rights. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The FECOND study was supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Health, a grant from the French National Agency of Research (#ANR-08-BLAN-0286-01; PIs N.B., C.M.), and funding from National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) and the National Institute for Demographic Research (INED). None of the authors have competing interests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)186-196
Number of pages11
JournalHuman Reproduction
Volume30
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Fingerprint

Pregnancy
Contraception
Contraceptive Agents
Organized Financing
Reproductive Health
Family Planning Services
France
Contraception Behavior
Demography
Education
Reproductive History
Induced Abortion
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
Pregnancy Rate
Parity
Population
Biomedical Research
Mothers
Parturition
Interviews

Keywords

  • Europe
  • family planning
  • gender
  • men
  • pregnancy intention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Reproductive Medicine

Cite this

Male experiences of unintended pregnancy : Characteristics and prevalence. / Kagesten, Anna; Bajos, Nathalie; Bohet, Aline; Moreau, Caroline.

In: Human Reproduction, Vol. 30, No. 1, 01.01.2015, p. 186-196.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kagesten, Anna ; Bajos, Nathalie ; Bohet, Aline ; Moreau, Caroline. / Male experiences of unintended pregnancy : Characteristics and prevalence. In: Human Reproduction. 2015 ; Vol. 30, No. 1. pp. 186-196.
@article{aa0113e89ab64ebcbed83330249be132,
title = "Male experiences of unintended pregnancy: Characteristics and prevalence",
abstract = "STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics and circumstances of pregnancies men report as unintended in France? SUMMARY ANSWER Pregnancies reported as unintended were most prevalent among young men with insecure financial situations, less stable relationships and inconsistent use of contraception or false assumptions about their partner's use of contraception. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Efforts to involve men in family planning have increased over the last decade; however, little is known about factors associated with men's pregnancy intentions and associated contraceptive behaviours. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The data presented in this study were drawn from the nationally representative FECOND study, a population-based survey conducted in France in 2010. The sample comprised 8675 individuals (3373 men), aged 15-49 years, who responded to a telephone interview about socio-demographics and topics related to sexual and reproductive health. The total refusal rate was 20{\%}. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS This study included 2997 men, of whom 664 reported 893 recent pregnancies (in the 5 years preceding the survey). Multivariate Poisson's regression with population-Averaged marginal effects was applied to assess the individual and contextual factors associated with men's intentions for recent pregnancies. The contraceptive circumstances leading to the unintended pregnancies were also assessed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Of all heterosexually active men, 5{\%} reported they had experienced an unintended pregnancy with a partner in the last 5 years. A total of 20{\%} of recent pregnancies reported by men were qualified to be unintended, of which 45{\%} ended in induced abortion. Of pregnancies following a previous unintended pregnancy, 68{\%} were themselves unintended. Among all heterosexually active men, recent experience of an unintended pregnancy was related to age, mother's education, age at first sex, parity, contraceptive method history, lifetime number of female partners and the relationship situation at the time of survey. Recent unintended pregnancies were also related to pregnancy order and to the financial and professional situation at the time of conception. The majority of unintended pregnancies occurred when men or their partners were using contraceptives; 58{\%} of contraceptive users considered that the pregnancy was due to inconsistent use and 39{\%} considered that it resulted from method failure. Half of the non-users who reported an unintended pregnancy thought that their partner was using a contraceptive method. The relative risk of non-use of a contraceptive method during the month of conception of a recent unintended pregnancy was higher among those without a high school degree (IRR = 2.9, CI 1.6, 5.2) and higher among men for whom the pregnancy interfered with education (IRR = 1.8, CI 1.0, 3.1) or work (IRR = 1.9, CI 1.1, 3.6). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION From the perspective of men, the unintended pregnancy rates may be underestimated due to a combination of underreporting of abortion and post-rationalization of birth intentions. Our use of a dichotomous measure of unintended pregnancy is unlikely to fully capture the multidimensional construct of pregnancy intentions. WIDER IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS These results call for gender-inclusive family planning programmes, which fully engage men as active participants in their own rights. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The FECOND study was supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Health, a grant from the French National Agency of Research (#ANR-08-BLAN-0286-01; PIs N.B., C.M.), and funding from National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) and the National Institute for Demographic Research (INED). None of the authors have competing interests.",
keywords = "Europe, family planning, gender, men, pregnancy intention",
author = "Anna Kagesten and Nathalie Bajos and Aline Bohet and Caroline Moreau",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/humrep/deu259",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "30",
pages = "186--196",
journal = "Human Reproduction",
issn = "0268-1161",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Male experiences of unintended pregnancy

T2 - Characteristics and prevalence

AU - Kagesten, Anna

AU - Bajos, Nathalie

AU - Bohet, Aline

AU - Moreau, Caroline

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics and circumstances of pregnancies men report as unintended in France? SUMMARY ANSWER Pregnancies reported as unintended were most prevalent among young men with insecure financial situations, less stable relationships and inconsistent use of contraception or false assumptions about their partner's use of contraception. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Efforts to involve men in family planning have increased over the last decade; however, little is known about factors associated with men's pregnancy intentions and associated contraceptive behaviours. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The data presented in this study were drawn from the nationally representative FECOND study, a population-based survey conducted in France in 2010. The sample comprised 8675 individuals (3373 men), aged 15-49 years, who responded to a telephone interview about socio-demographics and topics related to sexual and reproductive health. The total refusal rate was 20%. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS This study included 2997 men, of whom 664 reported 893 recent pregnancies (in the 5 years preceding the survey). Multivariate Poisson's regression with population-Averaged marginal effects was applied to assess the individual and contextual factors associated with men's intentions for recent pregnancies. The contraceptive circumstances leading to the unintended pregnancies were also assessed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Of all heterosexually active men, 5% reported they had experienced an unintended pregnancy with a partner in the last 5 years. A total of 20% of recent pregnancies reported by men were qualified to be unintended, of which 45% ended in induced abortion. Of pregnancies following a previous unintended pregnancy, 68% were themselves unintended. Among all heterosexually active men, recent experience of an unintended pregnancy was related to age, mother's education, age at first sex, parity, contraceptive method history, lifetime number of female partners and the relationship situation at the time of survey. Recent unintended pregnancies were also related to pregnancy order and to the financial and professional situation at the time of conception. The majority of unintended pregnancies occurred when men or their partners were using contraceptives; 58% of contraceptive users considered that the pregnancy was due to inconsistent use and 39% considered that it resulted from method failure. Half of the non-users who reported an unintended pregnancy thought that their partner was using a contraceptive method. The relative risk of non-use of a contraceptive method during the month of conception of a recent unintended pregnancy was higher among those without a high school degree (IRR = 2.9, CI 1.6, 5.2) and higher among men for whom the pregnancy interfered with education (IRR = 1.8, CI 1.0, 3.1) or work (IRR = 1.9, CI 1.1, 3.6). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION From the perspective of men, the unintended pregnancy rates may be underestimated due to a combination of underreporting of abortion and post-rationalization of birth intentions. Our use of a dichotomous measure of unintended pregnancy is unlikely to fully capture the multidimensional construct of pregnancy intentions. WIDER IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS These results call for gender-inclusive family planning programmes, which fully engage men as active participants in their own rights. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The FECOND study was supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Health, a grant from the French National Agency of Research (#ANR-08-BLAN-0286-01; PIs N.B., C.M.), and funding from National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) and the National Institute for Demographic Research (INED). None of the authors have competing interests.

AB - STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics and circumstances of pregnancies men report as unintended in France? SUMMARY ANSWER Pregnancies reported as unintended were most prevalent among young men with insecure financial situations, less stable relationships and inconsistent use of contraception or false assumptions about their partner's use of contraception. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Efforts to involve men in family planning have increased over the last decade; however, little is known about factors associated with men's pregnancy intentions and associated contraceptive behaviours. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The data presented in this study were drawn from the nationally representative FECOND study, a population-based survey conducted in France in 2010. The sample comprised 8675 individuals (3373 men), aged 15-49 years, who responded to a telephone interview about socio-demographics and topics related to sexual and reproductive health. The total refusal rate was 20%. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS This study included 2997 men, of whom 664 reported 893 recent pregnancies (in the 5 years preceding the survey). Multivariate Poisson's regression with population-Averaged marginal effects was applied to assess the individual and contextual factors associated with men's intentions for recent pregnancies. The contraceptive circumstances leading to the unintended pregnancies were also assessed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Of all heterosexually active men, 5% reported they had experienced an unintended pregnancy with a partner in the last 5 years. A total of 20% of recent pregnancies reported by men were qualified to be unintended, of which 45% ended in induced abortion. Of pregnancies following a previous unintended pregnancy, 68% were themselves unintended. Among all heterosexually active men, recent experience of an unintended pregnancy was related to age, mother's education, age at first sex, parity, contraceptive method history, lifetime number of female partners and the relationship situation at the time of survey. Recent unintended pregnancies were also related to pregnancy order and to the financial and professional situation at the time of conception. The majority of unintended pregnancies occurred when men or their partners were using contraceptives; 58% of contraceptive users considered that the pregnancy was due to inconsistent use and 39% considered that it resulted from method failure. Half of the non-users who reported an unintended pregnancy thought that their partner was using a contraceptive method. The relative risk of non-use of a contraceptive method during the month of conception of a recent unintended pregnancy was higher among those without a high school degree (IRR = 2.9, CI 1.6, 5.2) and higher among men for whom the pregnancy interfered with education (IRR = 1.8, CI 1.0, 3.1) or work (IRR = 1.9, CI 1.1, 3.6). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION From the perspective of men, the unintended pregnancy rates may be underestimated due to a combination of underreporting of abortion and post-rationalization of birth intentions. Our use of a dichotomous measure of unintended pregnancy is unlikely to fully capture the multidimensional construct of pregnancy intentions. WIDER IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS These results call for gender-inclusive family planning programmes, which fully engage men as active participants in their own rights. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The FECOND study was supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Health, a grant from the French National Agency of Research (#ANR-08-BLAN-0286-01; PIs N.B., C.M.), and funding from National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) and the National Institute for Demographic Research (INED). None of the authors have competing interests.

KW - Europe

KW - family planning

KW - gender

KW - men

KW - pregnancy intention

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84922463891&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84922463891&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/humrep/deu259

DO - 10.1093/humrep/deu259

M3 - Article

VL - 30

SP - 186

EP - 196

JO - Human Reproduction

JF - Human Reproduction

SN - 0268-1161

IS - 1

ER -