Purpose: A prospective, longitudinal cohort was studied to determine the incidence, consequences, and risk factors of major perioperative complications in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) treated with spinal fusion. There is a wide variety of data available on the complications of spine surgery; however, little exists on the perioperative complications in patients with CP. Methods: A prospective multicenter dataset of consecutive patients with CP treated with spinal fusion was evaluated. All major perioperative complications were identified and stratified into categories: pulmonary, gastrointestinal, other medical, wound infection, neurological, instrumentation related, and unplanned staged surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify various risk factors for major perioperative complications. Results: 127 patients were identified with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.6 years. Overall, 39.4 % of the patients had a major perioperative complication. Occurrence of a complication [no complication (NC), yes complication (YC)] resulted in significantly increased intensive care unit (ICU) (NC = 3.2 days, YC = 7.8 days, p < 0.05) and hospital stays (NC = 7.7 days, YC = 15.6 days, p < 0.05). Variables associated with greater risk of a complication included: increased estimated blood loss (EBL) (p < 0.001), larger preoperative kyphosis (p = 0.05), staged procedures (p < 0.05), a lack of antifibrinolytic use (p < 0.05), and a trend toward lower body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.08). Multivariate regression analysis revealed an increased EBL as independently associated with a major perioperative complication (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with CP who underwent spinal fusion, 39.4 % experienced a major perioperative complication, with pulmonary being the most common. The occurrence of a major perioperative complication lengthened both ICU and hospital stay. Risk factors for major perioperative complications included greater preoperative kyphosis, staged procedures, a lack of antifibrinolytic use, and increased EBL, with the latter being an independent predictor of a major perioperative complication. Level of evidence: 2.
- Cerebral palsy
- Perioperative complications
- Spinal fusion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine