Study design: Observational. Objectives: To report on the rate of major complications following spinal fusion and instrumentation to treat spinal deformity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Summary of background data: Understanding the risk of major complications following the surgical treatment of spine deformities in patients with CP is critical. Methods: A prospectively collected, multicenter database of patients with CP who had surgical correction of their spinal deformity (scoliosis or kyphosis) was reviewed for all major complications. Patients with ≥ 2 year follow-up or who died ≤ 2 years of surgery were included. A complication was defined as major if it resulted in reoperation, re-admission to the hospital, prolongation of the hospital stay, was considered life-threatening, or resulted in residual disability. Overall complication and revision rates were calculated for the perioperative (Peri-op; occurring ≤ 90 days postoperative) and delayed postoperative (Delayed; > 90 days) time periods. Results: Two hundred and fifty-seven patients met inclusion. Seventy-eight (30%) patients had a major complication, 18 (7%) had > 1. There were 92 (36%) major complications; 64 (24.9%) occurred Peri-op. The most common Peri-op complications were wound (n = 16, 6.2%) and pulmonary issues (n = 28, 10.9%), specifically deep infections (n = 12, 4.7%) and prolonged ventilator support (n = 21, 8.2%). Delayed complications (n = 28, 10.9%) were primarily deep infections (n = 8, 3.1%) and instrumentation-related (n = 6, 2.3%). There were 42 additional surgeries for an overall unplanned return to the operating room rate of 16% (Peri-op: 8.6%, Delayed: 7.8%). Thirty-six (14.0%) reoperations were spine related surgeries (wound or instrumentation-related). Eleven (4.3%) patients died between 3 months to 5.6 years postoperatively; 4 occurred ≤ 1 year of surgery. Two deaths were directly related to the spinal deformity surgery. Conclusion: Spinal deformity surgery in CP patients with greater than 2 years of follow-up have a postoperative major complication rate of 36% with a spine-related reoperation rate of 14.0%. Level of evidence: Therapeutic-IV.
- Cerebral palsy
- Neuromuscular scoliosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine