Maintaining usability during 3D placement despite delay

Benjamin Watson, Neff Walker, Peter Woytiuk, William Ribarsky

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


This paper describes an experimental investigation into the relationship of delay to user performance in 3D object placement. In the first experiment, 10 participants performed a placement task as delay and placement difficulty varied. Results were analyzed with statistical analyses of variance. Placement errors and times rose as delay and difficulty increased. An interaction indicated that controlling delay is particularly important when placement is already difficult. In vehicle control tasks, previewing forecasts required input, and is a useful way of compensating for delay. The second experiment examined the relationship of previewing to delay and difficulty in placement. With regard to delay and difficulty, the 15 participants replicated the first experiment's results. Previewing reduced placement times directly, and mitigated the effects of delay and difficulty. A three-way interaction indicated that when previewing is used, more delay can be tolerated even in difficult placement tasks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - IEEE Virtual Reality 2003, VR 2003
EditorsJim Chen, Bowen Loftin, Ulrich Neumann, Haruo Takemura, Bernd Froehlich
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)0769518826
StatePublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes
Event2003 IEEE Virtual Reality, VR 2003 - Los Angeles, United States
Duration: Mar 22 2003Mar 26 2003

Publication series

NameProceedings - IEEE Virtual Reality


Other2003 IEEE Virtual Reality, VR 2003
CountryUnited States
CityLos Angeles


  • Analysis of variance
  • Computer science
  • Delay effects
  • Human factors
  • Personal communication networks
  • Statistical analysis
  • Time measurement
  • Usability
  • Virtual environment
  • Virtual environment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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