Purpose To use the variable delay multipulse (VDMP) chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) approach to obtain clean amide proton transfer (APT) and relayed Nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) CEST images in the human brain by suppressing the conventional magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) and reducing the direct water saturation contribution. Methods The VDMP CEST scheme consists of a train of RF pulses with a specific mixing time. The CEST signal with respect to the mixing time shows distinguishable characteristics for protons with different exchange rates. Exchange rate filtered CEST images are generated by subtracting images acquired at two mixing times at which the MTC signals are equal, while the APT and rNOE-CEST signals differ. Because the subtraction is performed at the same frequency offset for each voxel and the CEST signals are broad, no B0 correction is needed. Results MTC-suppressed APT and rNOE-CEST images of human brain were obtained using the VDMP method. The APT-CEST data show hyperintensity in gray matter versus white matter, whereas the rNOE-CEST images show negligible contrast between gray and white matter. Conclusion The VDMP approach provides a simple and rapid way of recording MTC-suppressed APT-CEST and rNOE-CEST images without the need for B0 field correction.
- amide proton transfer (APT)
- chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)
- magnetization transfer contrast (MTC)
- relayed NOE (rNOE)
- variable delay multi-pulse (VDMP)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging