Multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has evolved into a highly versatile, noninvasive technique that is finding multiple applications in medical diagnosis, monitoring therapy, and research. The increasing interface of chemistry with the fields of MRSI and molecular biology, and the resulting advances in theranostic contrast agent design, are providing new advances in the applications of MRS for molecular characterization and molecular-targeted medicine, especially in cancer. MRS or MRSI detection of the 1H or 31P MRS signals of the chemical structures of glucose, lactate, N-acetyl aspartate, and citrate can assist in the diagnosis of cancer. MRS detection of 13C-labeled metabolites can be performed following administration of suitable 13C-labeled substrates in cancer cells and solid tumors to study glycolysis or other metabolic pathways such as choline metabolism. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS) 1H MRS is a relatively new technology for examining intact biological tissue, such as biopsy specimens, at high spectral resolution.
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