Adnexal masses are common in women of all ages. A range of physiological and benign ovarian conditions that develop in women, especially in the reproductive age, and adnexal malignancies can be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Management of women with adnexal masses is frequently guided by imaging findings; therefore, precise characterization of adnexal pathology should be performed whenever possible. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in characterization of adnexal masses that are not completely evaluated by ultrasound because it can provide additional information on soft tissue composition of adnexal masses based on specific tissue relaxation times and allows multiplanar imaging at large field of view to define the origin and extent of pelvic pathology. The patients most likely to benefit from MRI are pregnant women and those who are premenopausal and have masses that have complex features on ultrasound but do not have raised cancer antigen 125 tumor marker levels. The overlap in imaging appearance among different cell type malignancies makes it difficult to predict exact histology based on MRI appearance; however, MRI has a high accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant masses. Teratomas, endometriomas, simple and hemorrhagic cysts, fibromas, exophytic or extrauterine fibroids, and hydrosalpinges can be diagnosed with high confidence.In this article, the authors review the histopathologic background and MRI features of adnexal masses and discuss the role of MRI in the differentiation of benign from malignant adnexal pathologies.
- Benign adnexal mass
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Malignant adnexal mass
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging