Purpose: Benchmarking of flow and perfusion MR techniques on standardized phantoms can facilitate the use of advanced angiography and perfusion-mapping techniques across multiple sites, field strength, and vendors. Here, MRA and perfusion mapping by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using Fourier transform (FT)–based velocity-selective saturation and inversion pulse trains were evaluated on a commercial perfusion phantom. Methods: The FT velocity-selective saturation–based MRA and FT velocity-selective inversion–based ASL perfusion imaging were compared with time-of-flight and pseudo-continuous ASL at 3 T on the perfusion phantom at two controlled flow rates, 175 mL/min and 350 mL/min. Velocity-selective MRA (VSMRA) and velocity-selective ASL (VSASL) were each performed with three velocity-encoding directions: foot–head, left–right, and oblique 45°. The contrast-to-noise ratio for MRA scans and perfusion-weighted signal, as well as labeling efficiency for ASL methods, were quantified. Results: On this phantom with feeding tubes having only vertical and transverse flow directions, VSMRA and VSASL exhibited the dependence of velocity-encoding directions. The foot–head-encoded VSMRA and VSASL generated similar signal contrasts as time of flight and pseudo-continuous ASL for the two flow rates, respectively. The oblique 45°–encoded VSMRA yielded more uniform contrast-to-noise ratio across slices than foot–head and left–right-encoded VSMRA scans. The oblique 45°–encoded VSASL elevated labeling efficiency from 0.22-0.68 to 0.82-0.90 through more uniform labeling of the entire feeding tubes. Conclusion: Both FT velocity-selective saturation–based VSMRA and FT velocity-selective inversion–based VSASL were characterized on a commercial perfusion phantom. Careful selection of velocity-encoding directions along the major vessels is recommended for their applications in various organs.
- Fourier transform–based velocity-selective pulse train
- arterial spin labeling
- magnetic resonance angiography
- velocity-selective inversion
- velocity-selective saturation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging