Magnesium supplementation affects metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Zatollah Asemi, Maryam Karamali, Mehri Jamilian, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Fereshteh Bahmani, Zahra Heidarzadeh, Sanaz Benisi-Kohansal, Pamela Surkan, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: To our knowledge, prior research has not examined the effects of magnesium supplementation on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in maternal-child dyads affected by gestational diabetes (GDM). Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of magnesium supplementation on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in magnesium-deficient pregnant women with GDM. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 70 women with GDM. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg magnesium oxide (n = 35) or a placebo (n = 35) for 6 wk. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 6-wk intervention. Results: The change in serum magnesium concentration was greater in women consuming magnesium than in the placebo group (+0.06 ± 0.3 vs. -0.1 ± 0.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02). However, after controlling for baseline magnesium concentrations, the changes in serum magnesium concentrations were not significantly different between the groups. Changes in fasting plasma glucose (-9.7 ± 10.1 vs. +1.8 ± 8.1 mg/dL, P <0.001), serum insulin concentration (-2.1 ± 6.5 vs. +5.7 ± 10.7 μIU/mL, P = 0.001), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-0.5 ± 1.3 vs. +1.4 ± 2.3, P <0.001), homeostasis model of assessment- estimated β-cell function (-4.0 ± 28.7 vs. +22.0 ± 43.8, P = 0.006), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.004 ± 0.021 vs. -0.012 ± 0.015, P = 0.005) in supplemented women were significantly different from those in women in the placebo group. Changes in serum triglycerides (+2.1 ± 63.0 vs. +38.9 ± 37.5 mg/dL, P = 0.005), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (-432.8 ± -521.0 vs. +783.2 ± -470.1 ng/mL, P = 0.03), and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations (20.5 ± 1.6 vs. +0.3 ± 1.2 μmol/L, P = 0.01) were significantly different between the supplemented women and placebo group. Magnesium supplementation resulted in a lower incidence of newborn hyperbilirubinemia (8.8% vs. 29.4%, P = 0.03) and newborn hospitalization (5.9% vs. 26.5%, P = 0.02). Conclusion: Magnesium supplementation among women with GDM had beneficial effects on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-229
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume102
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

Fingerprint

Gestational Diabetes
Pregnancy Outcome
Magnesium
Placebos
Serum
Insulin Resistance
Fasting
Homeostasis
Magnesium Oxide
Newborn Infant
Hyperbilirubinemia
Controlled Clinical Trials
Malondialdehyde
C-Reactive Protein
Pregnant Women
Triglycerides
Hospitalization
Mothers
Insulin
Glucose

Keywords

  • Gestational diabetes
  • Magnesium
  • Pregnancy outcomes
  • Pregnant women
  • Supplementation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Magnesium supplementation affects metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes : A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. / Asemi, Zatollah; Karamali, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Heidarzadeh, Zahra; Benisi-Kohansal, Sanaz; Surkan, Pamela; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 102, No. 1, 01.07.2015, p. 222-229.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Asemi, Z, Karamali, M, Jamilian, M, Foroozanfard, F, Bahmani, F, Heidarzadeh, Z, Benisi-Kohansal, S, Surkan, P & Esmaillzadeh, A 2015, 'Magnesium supplementation affects metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 222-229. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.098616
Asemi, Zatollah ; Karamali, Maryam ; Jamilian, Mehri ; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh ; Bahmani, Fereshteh ; Heidarzadeh, Zahra ; Benisi-Kohansal, Sanaz ; Surkan, Pamela ; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad. / Magnesium supplementation affects metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes : A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015 ; Vol. 102, No. 1. pp. 222-229.
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AU - Foroozanfard, Fatemeh

AU - Bahmani, Fereshteh

AU - Heidarzadeh, Zahra

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N2 - Background: To our knowledge, prior research has not examined the effects of magnesium supplementation on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in maternal-child dyads affected by gestational diabetes (GDM). Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of magnesium supplementation on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in magnesium-deficient pregnant women with GDM. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 70 women with GDM. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg magnesium oxide (n = 35) or a placebo (n = 35) for 6 wk. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 6-wk intervention. Results: The change in serum magnesium concentration was greater in women consuming magnesium than in the placebo group (+0.06 ± 0.3 vs. -0.1 ± 0.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02). However, after controlling for baseline magnesium concentrations, the changes in serum magnesium concentrations were not significantly different between the groups. Changes in fasting plasma glucose (-9.7 ± 10.1 vs. +1.8 ± 8.1 mg/dL, P <0.001), serum insulin concentration (-2.1 ± 6.5 vs. +5.7 ± 10.7 μIU/mL, P = 0.001), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-0.5 ± 1.3 vs. +1.4 ± 2.3, P <0.001), homeostasis model of assessment- estimated β-cell function (-4.0 ± 28.7 vs. +22.0 ± 43.8, P = 0.006), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.004 ± 0.021 vs. -0.012 ± 0.015, P = 0.005) in supplemented women were significantly different from those in women in the placebo group. Changes in serum triglycerides (+2.1 ± 63.0 vs. +38.9 ± 37.5 mg/dL, P = 0.005), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (-432.8 ± -521.0 vs. +783.2 ± -470.1 ng/mL, P = 0.03), and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations (20.5 ± 1.6 vs. +0.3 ± 1.2 μmol/L, P = 0.01) were significantly different between the supplemented women and placebo group. Magnesium supplementation resulted in a lower incidence of newborn hyperbilirubinemia (8.8% vs. 29.4%, P = 0.03) and newborn hospitalization (5.9% vs. 26.5%, P = 0.02). Conclusion: Magnesium supplementation among women with GDM had beneficial effects on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes.

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