Macrophages in Bone Homeostasis

Lingbo Kong, Youhan Wang, Wanli Smith, Dingjun Hao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Aberrant or prolonged immune responses has been proved to be involved in bone homeostasis. As a component of the innate immune system, macrophages play a critical role in bone homeostasis. Conventionally, according to response to the various panel of stimuli, macrophages can be plastically classified into two major phenotypes: M1 and M2. M1 macrophages are generally proinflammatory, whereas M2 are anti-inflammatory. Although studies demonstrated that both M1 and M2 phenotypes have been implicated in various inflammatory bone diseases, their direct role in bone homeostasis remains unclear. Thus, in this review, we briefly discuss the term "osteoimmunology", which deals with the crosstalk and shared mechanisms of the bone and immune systems. In addition, we overview M1 and M2 macrophages for their role in osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis as well as relevant signaling cascades involved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)474-481
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent stem cell research & therapy
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2019


  • Bone homeostasis
  • TNF-α
  • immune system
  • macrophages
  • naive macrophages
  • osteoimmunology.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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