Macromolecular synthesis inhibitors prevent oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in embryonic cortical neurons by shunting cysteine from protein synthesis to glutathione

Rajiv R. Ratan, Timothy H. Murphy, Jay M Baraban

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Although macromolecular synthesis inhibitors have been demonstrated to prevent neuronal apoptosis in a number of paradigms, their mechanism of protection remains unclear. Recently, we found that neuronal death resulting from cystine deprivation, glutathione loss, and oxidative stress is apoptotic and is prevented by inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis. We now report that protection is associated with enhanced availability of acid-soluble cyst(e)ine and restoration of cellular glutathione levels. N-acetylcysteine, an agent that delivers exogenous cysteine intracellularly and raises glutathione, is also protective, while buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, prevents protection by inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis. These results suggest that protection provided by these agents, in this paradigm, derives from shunting of the amino acid cysteine from global protein synthesis into the formation of the antioxidant glutathione.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4385-4392
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume14
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1994

Fingerprint

Glutathione
Cysteine
Oxidative Stress
Apoptosis
Neurons
Proteins
Buthionine Sulfoximine
Cystine
Acetylcysteine
Cysts
Antioxidants
Amino Acids
Acids

Keywords

  • apoptosis
  • cortical neurons
  • cycloheximide
  • cyst(e)ine
  • glutamate
  • glutathione
  • oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

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abstract = "Although macromolecular synthesis inhibitors have been demonstrated to prevent neuronal apoptosis in a number of paradigms, their mechanism of protection remains unclear. Recently, we found that neuronal death resulting from cystine deprivation, glutathione loss, and oxidative stress is apoptotic and is prevented by inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis. We now report that protection is associated with enhanced availability of acid-soluble cyst(e)ine and restoration of cellular glutathione levels. N-acetylcysteine, an agent that delivers exogenous cysteine intracellularly and raises glutathione, is also protective, while buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, prevents protection by inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis. These results suggest that protection provided by these agents, in this paradigm, derives from shunting of the amino acid cysteine from global protein synthesis into the formation of the antioxidant glutathione.",
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AB - Although macromolecular synthesis inhibitors have been demonstrated to prevent neuronal apoptosis in a number of paradigms, their mechanism of protection remains unclear. Recently, we found that neuronal death resulting from cystine deprivation, glutathione loss, and oxidative stress is apoptotic and is prevented by inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis. We now report that protection is associated with enhanced availability of acid-soluble cyst(e)ine and restoration of cellular glutathione levels. N-acetylcysteine, an agent that delivers exogenous cysteine intracellularly and raises glutathione, is also protective, while buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, prevents protection by inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis. These results suggest that protection provided by these agents, in this paradigm, derives from shunting of the amino acid cysteine from global protein synthesis into the formation of the antioxidant glutathione.

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