Background. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a well-differentiated lung adenocarcinoma that has a tendency to spread chiefly within the confines of the lung by aerogenous and lymphatic routes and may therefore be amenable to local therapy. However, a high rate of local recurrence after lung transplantation was recently reported. We describe two patients with unresectable and recurrent extensive BAC limited to the lung parenchyma who underwent lung transplantation with curative intent. Methods. Patients were chosen to receive lung transplants for BAC if they met the following criteria: (1) recurrent or unresectable BAC limited to the lung parenchyma without nodal involvement and (2) suitable candidate for lung transplantation. Results. The first patient relapsed in the lungs at 9 months after transplantation. The pattern of disease suggested contamination of the new lungs at the time of implantation. Repeat lung transplantation was performed, with cardiopulmonary bypass and irrigation of the remaining upper airway. This patient has had no evidence of local or systemic tumor recurrence at more than 4 years since the second transplantation. The second patient underwent transplantation using the modified technique and expired 16 months after transplantation of other causes. An autopsy showed no evidence of recurrent BAC in the lungs or of metastatic lesions at any site. Conclusions. Lung transplantation may be an option for unresectable or recurrent BAC confined to the lungs. Isolation of the diseased lungs and the use of cardiopulmonary bypass during surgery may be important in this disease and should be studied further.
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