Objective: To review the present status of lung transplant (LTx) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Data Sources: Current English-language literature review using MEDLINE. Study Selection: Prospective and retrospective trials, series, reviews, databases, and editorials regarding the clinical and basic science aspects of LTx in patients with IPF. Data Extraction: We analyzed results from trials and series. Data Synthesis: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an incurable disease with a dismal prognosis. The onlytreatment of proven benefit is LTx. Since the introduction of the Lung Allocation Score, IPF has become the most common indication for LTx in the United States. These patients have a limited life expectancy and benefit from early referral for transplant. Although controversial, the most recent data suggest that bilateral LTx is superior to single LTx in the population of patients with IPF. For this population, LTx increases the length and quality of their lives. Conclusion: Although patients with IPF have a dismal prognosis, LTx is a safe and effective treatment to improve their survival and functional status.
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