Background: The aim of the current study was to perform two separate meta-analyses of available studies comparing low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) vs. unfractionated heparin (UFH) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated (i) with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) or (ii) with PCI after thrombolysis. Methods: All-cause mortality was the pre-specified primary endpoint and major bleeding complications were recorded as the secondary endpoints. Relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) were chosen as the effect measure. Results: Ten studies comprising 16286 patients were included. The median follow-up was 2months for the primary endpoint. Among LMWHs, enoxaparin was the compound most frequently used. In the pPCI group, LMWHs were associated with a reduction in mortality [RR (95% CI)=0.51 (0.41-0.64), P<0.001, ARR=3%] and major bleeding [RR (95% CI)=0.68 (0.49-0.94), P=0.02, ARR=2.0%] as compared with UFH. Conversely, no clear evidence of benefits with LWMHs was observed in the PCI group after thrombolysis. Meta-regression showed that patients with a higher baseline risk had greater benefits from LMWHs (r=0.72, P=0.02). Conclusions: LMWHs were associated with greater efficacy and safety than UFH in STEMI patients treated with pPCI, with a significant relationship between risk profile and clinical benefits. Based on this meta-analysis, LMWHs may be considered as a preferred anticoagulant among STEMI patients undergoing pPCI.
- Low-molecular-weight heparin
- Percutaneous coronary intervention
- ST-elevation myocardial infarction
- Unfractionated heparin
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