Low incidences of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection and declining risk behaviors in a cohort of injection drug users in Chennai, India

Sunil Solomon, David D Celentano, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Canjeevaram K. Vasudevan, Kalilapuri G. Murugavel, Syed H. Iqbal, Santhanam Anand, Muniratnam Suresh Kumar, Carl A Latkin, Suniti Solomon, Shruti Hemendra Mehta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The authors characterized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and prospective changes in self-reported risk behavior over 2 years among 1,158 injection drug users (IDUs) recruited in Chennai, India, in 2005-2006. At baseline, HIV prevalence was 25.3%, and HCV prevalence was 54.5%. Seropositive persons with prevalent HIV infection were used to estimate baseline HIV incidence by means of the Calypte HIV-1 BED Incidence EIA (Calypte Biomedical Corporation, Portland, Oregon). Longitudinal HIV and HCV incidence were measured among 865 HIV-negative IDUs and 519 HCV antibody-negative IDUs followed semiannually for 2 years. Participants received pre- and posttest risk reduction counseling at each visit. Estimated HIV incidence at baseline was 2.95 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 4.69) by BED assay; observed HIV incidence over 1,262 person-years was 0.48 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 0.17, 1.03). HCV incidence over 645 person-years was 1.71 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 0.85, 3.03). Self-reported risk behaviors declined significantly over time, from 100% of participants reporting drug injection at baseline to 11% at 24 months. In this cohort with high HIV and HCV prevalence at enrollment, the authors observed low incidence and declining self-reported risk behavior over time. While no formal intervention was administered, these findings highlight the potential impact of voluntary counseling and testing in a high-risk cohort.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1259-1267
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Volume172
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010

Fingerprint

Virus Diseases
Risk-Taking
Drug Users
Hepacivirus
India
HIV
Injections
Incidence
Confidence Intervals
Counseling
Hepatitis C Antibodies
Risk Reduction Behavior
HIV-1

Keywords

  • cohort studies
  • hepacivirus
  • HIV
  • India
  • risk-taking
  • substance abuse, intravenous

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Low incidences of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection and declining risk behaviors in a cohort of injection drug users in Chennai, India. / Solomon, Sunil; Celentano, David D; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K.; Murugavel, Kalilapuri G.; Iqbal, Syed H.; Anand, Santhanam; Kumar, Muniratnam Suresh; Latkin, Carl A; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti Hemendra.

In: American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 172, No. 11, 01.12.2010, p. 1259-1267.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Solomon, Sunil ; Celentano, David D ; Srikrishnan, Aylur K. ; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K. ; Murugavel, Kalilapuri G. ; Iqbal, Syed H. ; Anand, Santhanam ; Kumar, Muniratnam Suresh ; Latkin, Carl A ; Solomon, Suniti ; Mehta, Shruti Hemendra. / Low incidences of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection and declining risk behaviors in a cohort of injection drug users in Chennai, India. In: American Journal of Epidemiology. 2010 ; Vol. 172, No. 11. pp. 1259-1267.
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abstract = "The authors characterized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and prospective changes in self-reported risk behavior over 2 years among 1,158 injection drug users (IDUs) recruited in Chennai, India, in 2005-2006. At baseline, HIV prevalence was 25.3{\%}, and HCV prevalence was 54.5{\%}. Seropositive persons with prevalent HIV infection were used to estimate baseline HIV incidence by means of the Calypte HIV-1 BED Incidence EIA (Calypte Biomedical Corporation, Portland, Oregon). Longitudinal HIV and HCV incidence were measured among 865 HIV-negative IDUs and 519 HCV antibody-negative IDUs followed semiannually for 2 years. Participants received pre- and posttest risk reduction counseling at each visit. Estimated HIV incidence at baseline was 2.95 per 100 person-years (95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 4.69) by BED assay; observed HIV incidence over 1,262 person-years was 0.48 per 100 person-years (95{\%} CI: 0.17, 1.03). HCV incidence over 645 person-years was 1.71 per 100 person-years (95{\%} CI: 0.85, 3.03). Self-reported risk behaviors declined significantly over time, from 100{\%} of participants reporting drug injection at baseline to 11{\%} at 24 months. In this cohort with high HIV and HCV prevalence at enrollment, the authors observed low incidence and declining self-reported risk behavior over time. While no formal intervention was administered, these findings highlight the potential impact of voluntary counseling and testing in a high-risk cohort.",
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