Low incidences of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection and declining risk behaviors in a cohort of injection drug users in Chennai, India

Sunil Suhas Solomon, David D. Celentano, Aylur K. Srikrishnan, Canjeevaram K. Vasudevan, Kalilapuri G. Murugavel, Syed H. Iqbal, Santhanam Anand, Muniratnam Suresh Kumar, Carl Latkin, Suniti Solomon, Shruti H. Mehta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The authors characterized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and prospective changes in self-reported risk behavior over 2 years among 1,158 injection drug users (IDUs) recruited in Chennai, India, in 2005-2006. At baseline, HIV prevalence was 25.3%, and HCV prevalence was 54.5%. Seropositive persons with prevalent HIV infection were used to estimate baseline HIV incidence by means of the Calypte HIV-1 BED Incidence EIA (Calypte Biomedical Corporation, Portland, Oregon). Longitudinal HIV and HCV incidence were measured among 865 HIV-negative IDUs and 519 HCV antibody-negative IDUs followed semiannually for 2 years. Participants received pre- and posttest risk reduction counseling at each visit. Estimated HIV incidence at baseline was 2.95 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 4.69) by BED assay; observed HIV incidence over 1,262 person-years was 0.48 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 0.17, 1.03). HCV incidence over 645 person-years was 1.71 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 0.85, 3.03). Self-reported risk behaviors declined significantly over time, from 100% of participants reporting drug injection at baseline to 11% at 24 months. In this cohort with high HIV and HCV prevalence at enrollment, the authors observed low incidence and declining self-reported risk behavior over time. While no formal intervention was administered, these findings highlight the potential impact of voluntary counseling and testing in a high-risk cohort.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1259-1267
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Volume172
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010

Keywords

  • HIV
  • India
  • cohort studies
  • hepacivirus
  • risk-taking
  • substance abuse, intravenous

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

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