The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) could demonstrate, for the first time, in a prospective randomized trial, that low-dose CT screening (LD-CT) may decrease lung cancer mortality. At the moment, it is unclear how these results will be applicable to Austria. Specifically, the definition of the population at an increased risk for lung cancer and management of the high rate of false-positive results are problematic. As a consequence, lung cancer screening in Austria is recommended following the guidelines of the Austrian Society of Radiology and the Austrian Society of Pneumology. The recommendations suggest that only individuals with a significantly increased risk for lung cancer should be screened (age > 55 years, 30 pack-years, active or former smokers since < 15 years). The screened individuals must be informed about the high probability of false-positive screening results and the necessity for additional follow-up examinations or invasive examinations. The screened individuals must be informed that a CT screening may not prevent them from developing an inoperable lung cancer. In addition, CT screening examinations should be performed with a low-dose CT technique for at least three years at yearly intervals. In view of the high probability of false-positive findings, the evaluation of detected pulmonary nodules should be performed according to an already established standardized protocol.
- Lung cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas