Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal

Sigrun Henjum, Liv Elin Torheim, Andrew Thorne-Lyman, Ram Chandyo, Wafaie W. Fawzi, Prakash S. Shrestha, Tor A. Strand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective The main objectives were to assess the adequacy of the micronutrient intakes of lactating women in a peri-urban area in Nepal and to describe the relationships between micronutrient intake adequacy, dietary diversity and sociodemographic variables. Design A cross-sectional survey was performed during 2008-2009. We used 24 h dietary recall to assess dietary intake on three non-consecutive days and calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of the usual intake of eleven micronutrients and the overall mean probability of adequacy (MPA). A mean dietary diversity score (MDDS) was calculated of eight food groups averaged over 3 d. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the determinants of the MPA. Setting Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal. Subjects Lactating women (n 500), 17-44 years old, randomly selected. Results The mean usual energy intake was 8464 (sd 1305) kJ/d (2023 (sd 312) kcal/d), while the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 11 %, 13 % and 76 %, respectively. The mean usual micronutrient intakes were below the estimated average requirements for all micronutrients, with the exception of Vitamin C and Zn. The MPA across eleven micronutrients was 0·19 (sd 0·16). The diet was found to be monotonous (MDDS was 3·9 (sd 1·0)) and rice contributed to about 60 % of the energy intake. The multiple regression analyses showed that MPA was positively associated with energy intake, dietary diversity, women's educational level and socio-economic status, and was higher in the winter. Conclusions The low micronutrient intakes are probably explained by low dietary diversity and a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3201-3210
Number of pages10
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Volume18
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2015
Externally publishedYes

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Nepal
Micronutrients
Energy Intake
Food
Ascorbic Acid
Linear Models
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fats
Regression Analysis
Economics
Carbohydrates
Diet

Keywords

  • Dietary diversity
  • Lactating women
  • Micronutrient adequacy
  • Peri-urban Nepal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. / Henjum, Sigrun; Torheim, Liv Elin; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew; Chandyo, Ram; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Strand, Tor A.

In: Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 18, No. 17, 15.02.2015, p. 3201-3210.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Henjum, Sigrun ; Torheim, Liv Elin ; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew ; Chandyo, Ram ; Fawzi, Wafaie W. ; Shrestha, Prakash S. ; Strand, Tor A. / Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal. In: Public Health Nutrition. 2015 ; Vol. 18, No. 17. pp. 3201-3210.
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abstract = "Objective The main objectives were to assess the adequacy of the micronutrient intakes of lactating women in a peri-urban area in Nepal and to describe the relationships between micronutrient intake adequacy, dietary diversity and sociodemographic variables. Design A cross-sectional survey was performed during 2008-2009. We used 24 h dietary recall to assess dietary intake on three non-consecutive days and calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of the usual intake of eleven micronutrients and the overall mean probability of adequacy (MPA). A mean dietary diversity score (MDDS) was calculated of eight food groups averaged over 3 d. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the determinants of the MPA. Setting Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal. Subjects Lactating women (n 500), 17-44 years old, randomly selected. Results The mean usual energy intake was 8464 (sd 1305) kJ/d (2023 (sd 312) kcal/d), while the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 11 {\%}, 13 {\%} and 76 {\%}, respectively. The mean usual micronutrient intakes were below the estimated average requirements for all micronutrients, with the exception of Vitamin C and Zn. The MPA across eleven micronutrients was 0·19 (sd 0·16). The diet was found to be monotonous (MDDS was 3·9 (sd 1·0)) and rice contributed to about 60 {\%} of the energy intake. The multiple regression analyses showed that MPA was positively associated with energy intake, dietary diversity, women's educational level and socio-economic status, and was higher in the winter. Conclusions The low micronutrient intakes are probably explained by low dietary diversity and a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods.",
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T1 - Low dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy among lactating women in a peri-urban area of Nepal

AU - Henjum, Sigrun

AU - Torheim, Liv Elin

AU - Thorne-Lyman, Andrew

AU - Chandyo, Ram

AU - Fawzi, Wafaie W.

AU - Shrestha, Prakash S.

AU - Strand, Tor A.

PY - 2015/2/15

Y1 - 2015/2/15

N2 - Objective The main objectives were to assess the adequacy of the micronutrient intakes of lactating women in a peri-urban area in Nepal and to describe the relationships between micronutrient intake adequacy, dietary diversity and sociodemographic variables. Design A cross-sectional survey was performed during 2008-2009. We used 24 h dietary recall to assess dietary intake on three non-consecutive days and calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of the usual intake of eleven micronutrients and the overall mean probability of adequacy (MPA). A mean dietary diversity score (MDDS) was calculated of eight food groups averaged over 3 d. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the determinants of the MPA. Setting Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal. Subjects Lactating women (n 500), 17-44 years old, randomly selected. Results The mean usual energy intake was 8464 (sd 1305) kJ/d (2023 (sd 312) kcal/d), while the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 11 %, 13 % and 76 %, respectively. The mean usual micronutrient intakes were below the estimated average requirements for all micronutrients, with the exception of Vitamin C and Zn. The MPA across eleven micronutrients was 0·19 (sd 0·16). The diet was found to be monotonous (MDDS was 3·9 (sd 1·0)) and rice contributed to about 60 % of the energy intake. The multiple regression analyses showed that MPA was positively associated with energy intake, dietary diversity, women's educational level and socio-economic status, and was higher in the winter. Conclusions The low micronutrient intakes are probably explained by low dietary diversity and a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods.

AB - Objective The main objectives were to assess the adequacy of the micronutrient intakes of lactating women in a peri-urban area in Nepal and to describe the relationships between micronutrient intake adequacy, dietary diversity and sociodemographic variables. Design A cross-sectional survey was performed during 2008-2009. We used 24 h dietary recall to assess dietary intake on three non-consecutive days and calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of the usual intake of eleven micronutrients and the overall mean probability of adequacy (MPA). A mean dietary diversity score (MDDS) was calculated of eight food groups averaged over 3 d. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the determinants of the MPA. Setting Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal. Subjects Lactating women (n 500), 17-44 years old, randomly selected. Results The mean usual energy intake was 8464 (sd 1305) kJ/d (2023 (sd 312) kcal/d), while the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 11 %, 13 % and 76 %, respectively. The mean usual micronutrient intakes were below the estimated average requirements for all micronutrients, with the exception of Vitamin C and Zn. The MPA across eleven micronutrients was 0·19 (sd 0·16). The diet was found to be monotonous (MDDS was 3·9 (sd 1·0)) and rice contributed to about 60 % of the energy intake. The multiple regression analyses showed that MPA was positively associated with energy intake, dietary diversity, women's educational level and socio-economic status, and was higher in the winter. Conclusions The low micronutrient intakes are probably explained by low dietary diversity and a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods.

KW - Dietary diversity

KW - Lactating women

KW - Micronutrient adequacy

KW - Peri-urban Nepal

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