Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

Julie A. Williams, Kaycee M. Sink, Janet A. Tooze, Hal H. Atkinson, Jane A. Cauley, Kristine Yaffe, Frances A. Tylavsky, Susan M. Rubin, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Stephen B. Kritchevsky, Denise K. Houston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Cross-sectional studies suggest that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) may be a risk factor for depression; however, there are few prospective studies. We examined the association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged 70.79 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (n = 2598). Methods. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies- Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and 2-, 3- and 4-year follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at 1-year follow-up and categorized as <20, 20.<30, and .30 ng/mL. Mixed models were used to examine change in CES-D scores according to 25(OH)D categories. The association between 25(OH)D categories and incident depression (CES-D short score .10 or antidepressant medication use) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, season, and chronic conditions. Results. Thirty-three percent of participants had 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with CES-D scores at baseline (p = .51); however, CES-D scores increased over time and were significantly associated with 25(OH)D at 2-year (p = .003) and 4-year follow-up (p < .001). Among 2,156 participants free of depression at the 1-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of depression was 26.9%. Participants with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL were at greater risk of developing depression (HR [95% CI]: 1.65 [1.23.2.22]) over 4 years of follow-up compared with those with 25(OH)D .30 ng/mL. Conclusion. Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with a greater increase in depressive symptom scores and incident depression in community-dwelling older adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)757-763
Number of pages7
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Volume70
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Epidemiology
  • Nutrition
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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