Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)

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Abstract

Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-216
Number of pages13
JournalFolia Primatologica
Volume47
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1986
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Alouatta seniculus
  • Categories
  • Loud call
  • Mechanisms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology

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