A serologic test for antibodies to chlamydial antigen pgp3 may be a useful tool for trachoma surveillance. However, little is known about the stability of antibody status over time, or factors associated with seroreversion/conversion. A cohort of 2,111 children ages 1-9 years in Tanzania were followed for one year in the absence of mass azithromycin. At baseline and follow-up, they were evaluated for trachoma, chlamydial infection, and antibodies to chlamydial antigen pgp3. At baseline, 31% of children were seropositive for pgp3 antibodies and 6.4% seroreverted to negative over one year. Of those seronegative, 9.8% seroconverted over the year. The seroreverters had lower baseline mean fluorescence intensity (MFI-BG) values compared to the seropositives who remained positive (Odds Ratio = 0.04 for every unit increase in log10MFI-BG, 95% CI = 0.02-0.09), and were more likely to live in communities with trachoma <5% (p < 0.008). While seroconversion was expected, seroreversion was unexpected. The low seroprevalence rate reported from low endemic areas may be due to seroreversion as well as lack of exposure.
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