Longitudinal analysis of quantiFERON-TB gold in-tube in children with adult household tuberculosis contact in South Africa: A prospective cohort study

Maunank Shah, Tafadzwa S. Kasambira, Peter V. Adrian, Shabir A. Madhi, Neil A. Martinson, Susan E. Dorman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) is a tool for detecting M. tuberculosis infection. However, interpretation and utility of serial QFT-GIT testing of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) contacts is not well understood. We compared TB prevalence between baseline and 6 months follow-up using QFT-GIT and tuberculin skin testing (TST) in children who were household contacts of adults with pulmonary TB in South Africa, and explored factors associated with QFT-GIT conversions and reversions. Method: Prospective study with six month longitudinal follow-up. Results: Among 270 enrolled pediatric contacts, 196 (73%) underwent 6-month follow-up testing. The 6-month prevalence estimate of MTB infection in pediatric contacts increased significantly from a baseline of 29% (79/270, 95%CI [24-35]) to 38% (103/270, 95% CI [32-44], p<0.001) using QFT-GIT; prevalence increased from a baseline of 28% (71/254, 95%CI [23-34]) to 33% (88/263, 95%CI [21-32], p = 0.002) using TST. Prevalence estimates were influenced by thresholds for positivity for TST, but not for QFT-GIT. Among 134 children with a negative or indeterminate baseline QFT-GIT, 24 (18%) converted to positive at follow-up; conversion rates did not differ significantly when using more stringent thresholds to define QFT-GIT conversion. Older age >10 years (AOR 8.9 95%CI [1.1-72]) and baseline TST positivity ≥5 mm (AOR 5.2 95%CI [1.2-23]) were associated with QFT-GIT conversion. Among 62 children with a positive baseline QFT-GIT, 9 (15%) reverted to negative; female gender (AOR 18.5 95%CI [1.1-321]; p = 0.04] was associated with reversion, while children with baseline positive TST were less likely to have QFT-GIT reversion (AOR 0.01 95%CI [0.001-0.24]). Conclusion: Among pediatric contacts of adult household TB cases in South Africa, prevalence estimates of TB infection increased significantly from baseline to 6 months. Conversions and reversions occurred among pediatric TB contacts using QFT-GIT, but QFT-GIT conversion rates were less influenced by thresholds used for conversions than were TST conversion rates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere26787
JournalPloS one
Volume6
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 4 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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