Between 1958 and 1977, 170 children aged 10 years or less underwent total repair of tetralogy of Fallot at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Follow-up data were obtained on 128 (90%) of the 143 who survived the operation at 10 to 28 years postoperatively (mean follow-up, 18 years). All patients completed an extensive questionnaire, and 59 returned for a thorough evaluation consisting of a history and physical examination, electrocardiogram, 24-hour Holter monitoring, exercise stress testing, pulmonary function testing, and two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Late survival was excellent with only two of four known late deaths due to cardiac-related causes and with all 59 patients in New York Heart Association class I or II. None had cyanosis or clubbing. Normal sinus rhythm was present in 90%. One patient had complete heart block, and 75% had right bundlebranch block on the electrocardiogram. Right ventricular function was normal by echocardiography in 78%. Residual mild to moderate pulmonary stenosis was noted by Doppler study in 8 patients. Pulmonary regurgitation was present in 78%, but in only 11 patients was it graded as moderate and in none was it severe. Stress testing documented the excellent functional status of most patients, with 92% of predicted exercise time and 94% of maximum heart rate being attained. In the few who had impaired cardiac performance, this correlated best with moderate pulmonary regurgitation. Although the overall late functional status of patients undergoing repair in the first decade of life was very good, these patients need continued follow-up to assess the severity of pulmonary regurgitation and the need of possible intervention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine