Objectives: Systemic right ventricular failure after atrial switch procedures for transposition of the great arteries has been addressed at Melbourne's Royal Children's Hospital (1981-1993) and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (1993-2001) with reconditioning of the morphologically left ventricle by means of pulmonary artery banding followed by an arterial switch operation and an atrial reseptation. Methods: Thirty-nine patients (Royal Children's Hospital, 19; Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 20) with a median age of 10.8 years (range, 13 months-24 years) entered this protocol a median of 10.3 years (range, 0.5-24 years) after an atrial switch procedure. Results: The median duration of pulmonary artery banding was 13 months (range, 0.5-5.4 years). Ten (28%) patients responded unfavorably to morphologically left ventricular reconditioning (5 mortalities: 4 transplantations and 1 PAB still in place). Twenty-four (83%) of the 29 patients who underwent an atrial switch operation and atrial reseptation survived. During a median follow-up period of 8.2 years (range, 1-16 years), 3 patients had cardiac-related deaths. All 18 long-term survivors are asymptomatic. At last echocardiographic evaluation, the morphologically left ventricular function was normal or mildly decreased in 16 (89%) patients, and all had normal or mildly decreased systemic right ventricular function with no or mild tricuspid regurgitation. Age greater than 12 years was associated with a greater probability of morphologically left ventricular failure and not completing the protocol (P = .02) and a higher operative mortality at anatomic correction (P = .02). Conclusions: Morphologically left ventricular reconditioning and an anatomic correction protocol should be integrated into a cardiac transplantation program when treating patients with morphologically right ventricular failure after Mustard and Senning procedures. It is an alternative to cardiac transplantation in selected patients, with good long-term results. The response to morphologically left ventricular reconditioning past adolescence is inconsistent.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine