Long-term protection from isoniazid preventive therapy for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a medium-burden tuberculosis setting: The TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) study

Jonathan E. Golub, Silvia Cohn, Valeria Saraceni, Solange C. Cavalcante, Antonio G. Pacheco, Lawrence H. Moulton, Betina Durovni, Richard E. Chaisson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background.The duration of protection against tuberculosis provided by isoniazid preventive therapy is not known for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals living in settings of medium tuberculosis incidence. Methods.We conducted an individual-level analysis of participants in a cluster-randomized, phased-implementation trial of isoniazid preventive therapy. HIV-infected patients who had positive tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) were followed until tuberculosis diagnosis, death, or administrative censoring. Nelson-Aalen cumulative hazard plots were generated and hazards were compared using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to investigate factors associated with tuberculosis diagnosis. Results.Between 2003 and 2009, 1954 patients with a positive TST were studied. Among these, 1601 (82%) initiated isoniazid. Overall tuberculosis incidence was 1.39 per 100 person-years (PY); 0.53 per 100 PY in those who initiated isoniazid and 6.52 per 100 PY for those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI],. 11-.25). Receiving antiretroviral therapy at time of a positive TST was associated with a reduced risk of tuberculosis (aHR, 0.69; 95% CI,. 48-1.00). Nelson-Aalen plots of tuberculosis incidence showed a constant risk, with no acceleration in 7 years of follow-up for those initiating isoniazid preventive therapy. Conclusions.Isoniazid preventive therapy significantly reduced tuberculosis risk among HIV-infected patients with a positive TST. In a medium-prevalence setting, 6 months of isoniazid in HIV-infected patients with positive TST reduces tuberculosis risk over 7 years of follow-up, in contrast to results of studies in higher-burden settings in Africa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)639-645
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume60
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2015

Keywords

  • HIV
  • durability
  • isoniazid
  • preventive therapy
  • tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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