Long-term outcome in patients registered with tuberculosis in Zomba, Malawi: Mortality at 7 years according to initial HIV status and type of TB

C. T. Kang'Ombe, Anthony D. Harries, K. Ito, T. Clark, T. E. Nyirenda, W. Aldis, P. P. Nunn, R. D. Semba, F. M.L. Salaniponi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

SETTING: Zomba Central Hospital, Malawi. OBJECTIVES: To determine the outcome of all adult patients who were registered for tuberculosis (TB) treatment 7 years previously according to initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and type of TB. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of adult patients registered for TB treatment between July and December 1995. Follow-up at patients' homes was performed at the end of treatment, at 32 months and at 84 months (7 years) from the time of TB registration. FINDINGS: Eight hundred and twenty-seven TB patients were registered: 793 had concordant HIV test results, of whom 612 (77%) were HIV-positive. At 7 years, 136 (17%) patients were alive, 539 (65%) had died and 152 (18%) were lost to follow-up. The death rate for all TB patients was 23.7 per 100 person-years of observation. HIV-positive patients had higher death rates than HIV-negative patients (hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.7-2.8). Death rates in smear-negative pulmonary TB patients (HR 2.1, 95%CI 1.7-2.6) and in patients with extra-pulmonary TB (HR 1.7, 95%CI 1.3-2.0) were higher than in patients with smear-positive PTB. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high mortality rate in TB patients during and after anti-tuberculosis treatment. Adjunctive treatments to reduce death rates are urgently needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)829-836
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Volume8
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2004

Keywords

  • Extrapulmonary TB
  • HIV infection
  • Malawi
  • Mortality
  • Smear-negative TB
  • Smear-positive TB
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases

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