Objectives: The authors sought to examine the long-term cognitive outcome of patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD). Background: Data on long-term neurocognitive outcome in LVAD are limited. We examined the neurocognitive outcome of patients who received a CF-LVAD as destination therapy. Methods: Patients with HeartWare (HVAD) and HeartMate II who were enrolled in the ENDURANCE and ENDURANCE Supplemental trials were eligible. Cognition was evaluated with neuropsychological testing preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. General linear models identified demographic, disease, and treatment factors that predicted decline on each neurocognitive measure. Results: Of 668 patients who completed baseline testing and at least 1 follow-up evaluation, 552 were impaired at baseline on at least 1 cognitive measure. At each follow-up, approximately 23% of tested patients declined and 20% improved relative to baseline on at least 1 cognitive measure. Of those who were intact at baseline, only 10%-12% declined in delayed memory and 11%-16% declined in executive function at all 3 follow-ups. For patients impaired at baseline, delayed memory decline was associated with the HVAD device and male sex, whereas executive function decline was associated with the HVAD device and stroke during CF-LVAD support. For patients intact at baseline, male sex and history of hypertension were associated with decline in immediate memory and executive function, respectively. Conclusions: Neurocognitive function remained stable or improved for most patients (∼80%) with CF-LVAD at 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Male sex, hypertension, HVAD, and stroke were associated with cognitive decline.
- continuous flow left ventricular assist device
- left ventricular assist device
- neurocognitive outcome
- neurologic complication
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine