Long-term maintenance of stable copy number in the eukaryotic SMC family

origin of a vertebrate meiotic SMC1 and fate of recent segmental duplicates

Alexandra Surcel, Xiaofan Zhou, Li Quan, Hong Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Members of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) family have long been of interest to molecular and evolutionary biologists for their role in chromosome structural dynamics, particularly sister chromatid cohesion, condensation, and DNA repair. SMC and related proteins are found in all major groups of living organisms and share a common structure of conserved N and C globular domains separated from the conserved hinge domain by long coiled-coil regions. In eukaryotes there are six paralogous proteins that form three heterodimeric pairs, whereas in prokaryotes there is only one SMC protein that homodimerizes. From recently completed genome sequences, we have identified SMC genes from 34 eukaryotes that have not been described in previous reports. Our phylogenetic analysis of these and previously identified SMC genes supports an origin for the vertebrate meiotic SMC1 in the most recent common ancestor since the divergence from invertebrate animals. Additionally, we have identified duplicate copies due to segmental duplications for some of the SMC paralogs in plants and yeast, mainly SMC2 and SMC6, and detected evidence that duplicates of other paralogs were lost, suggesting differential evolution for these genes. Our analysis indicates that the SMC paralogs have been stably maintained at very low copy numbers, even after segmental (genome-wide) duplications. It is possible that such low copy numbers might be selected during eukaryotic evolution, although other possibilities are not ruled out.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-423
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Systematics and Evolution
Volume46
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2008

Fingerprint

chromosome
vertebrate
vertebrates
chromosomes
eukaryote
protein
eukaryotic cells
gene
genome
chromatids
genes
proteins
family
prokaryote
common ancestry
prokaryotic cells
DNA repair
cohesion
repair
biologists

Keywords

  • Cohesin
  • Condensin
  • Meiosis
  • Segmental duplication
  • SMC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Plant Science

Cite this

@article{e5170c76de844a42a3c9b4301be1100c,
title = "Long-term maintenance of stable copy number in the eukaryotic SMC family: origin of a vertebrate meiotic SMC1 and fate of recent segmental duplicates",
abstract = "Members of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) family have long been of interest to molecular and evolutionary biologists for their role in chromosome structural dynamics, particularly sister chromatid cohesion, condensation, and DNA repair. SMC and related proteins are found in all major groups of living organisms and share a common structure of conserved N and C globular domains separated from the conserved hinge domain by long coiled-coil regions. In eukaryotes there are six paralogous proteins that form three heterodimeric pairs, whereas in prokaryotes there is only one SMC protein that homodimerizes. From recently completed genome sequences, we have identified SMC genes from 34 eukaryotes that have not been described in previous reports. Our phylogenetic analysis of these and previously identified SMC genes supports an origin for the vertebrate meiotic SMC1 in the most recent common ancestor since the divergence from invertebrate animals. Additionally, we have identified duplicate copies due to segmental duplications for some of the SMC paralogs in plants and yeast, mainly SMC2 and SMC6, and detected evidence that duplicates of other paralogs were lost, suggesting differential evolution for these genes. Our analysis indicates that the SMC paralogs have been stably maintained at very low copy numbers, even after segmental (genome-wide) duplications. It is possible that such low copy numbers might be selected during eukaryotic evolution, although other possibilities are not ruled out.",
keywords = "Cohesin, Condensin, Meiosis, Segmental duplication, SMC",
author = "Alexandra Surcel and Xiaofan Zhou and Li Quan and Hong Ma",
year = "2008",
doi = "10.3724/SP.J.1002.2008.08031",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "46",
pages = "405--423",
journal = "Journal of Systematics and Evolution",
issn = "1674-4918",
publisher = "Ke xue chu ban she",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-term maintenance of stable copy number in the eukaryotic SMC family

T2 - origin of a vertebrate meiotic SMC1 and fate of recent segmental duplicates

AU - Surcel, Alexandra

AU - Zhou, Xiaofan

AU - Quan, Li

AU - Ma, Hong

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Members of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) family have long been of interest to molecular and evolutionary biologists for their role in chromosome structural dynamics, particularly sister chromatid cohesion, condensation, and DNA repair. SMC and related proteins are found in all major groups of living organisms and share a common structure of conserved N and C globular domains separated from the conserved hinge domain by long coiled-coil regions. In eukaryotes there are six paralogous proteins that form three heterodimeric pairs, whereas in prokaryotes there is only one SMC protein that homodimerizes. From recently completed genome sequences, we have identified SMC genes from 34 eukaryotes that have not been described in previous reports. Our phylogenetic analysis of these and previously identified SMC genes supports an origin for the vertebrate meiotic SMC1 in the most recent common ancestor since the divergence from invertebrate animals. Additionally, we have identified duplicate copies due to segmental duplications for some of the SMC paralogs in plants and yeast, mainly SMC2 and SMC6, and detected evidence that duplicates of other paralogs were lost, suggesting differential evolution for these genes. Our analysis indicates that the SMC paralogs have been stably maintained at very low copy numbers, even after segmental (genome-wide) duplications. It is possible that such low copy numbers might be selected during eukaryotic evolution, although other possibilities are not ruled out.

AB - Members of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) family have long been of interest to molecular and evolutionary biologists for their role in chromosome structural dynamics, particularly sister chromatid cohesion, condensation, and DNA repair. SMC and related proteins are found in all major groups of living organisms and share a common structure of conserved N and C globular domains separated from the conserved hinge domain by long coiled-coil regions. In eukaryotes there are six paralogous proteins that form three heterodimeric pairs, whereas in prokaryotes there is only one SMC protein that homodimerizes. From recently completed genome sequences, we have identified SMC genes from 34 eukaryotes that have not been described in previous reports. Our phylogenetic analysis of these and previously identified SMC genes supports an origin for the vertebrate meiotic SMC1 in the most recent common ancestor since the divergence from invertebrate animals. Additionally, we have identified duplicate copies due to segmental duplications for some of the SMC paralogs in plants and yeast, mainly SMC2 and SMC6, and detected evidence that duplicates of other paralogs were lost, suggesting differential evolution for these genes. Our analysis indicates that the SMC paralogs have been stably maintained at very low copy numbers, even after segmental (genome-wide) duplications. It is possible that such low copy numbers might be selected during eukaryotic evolution, although other possibilities are not ruled out.

KW - Cohesin

KW - Condensin

KW - Meiosis

KW - Segmental duplication

KW - SMC

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=56849133753&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=56849133753&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3724/SP.J.1002.2008.08031

DO - 10.3724/SP.J.1002.2008.08031

M3 - Article

VL - 46

SP - 405

EP - 423

JO - Journal of Systematics and Evolution

JF - Journal of Systematics and Evolution

SN - 1674-4918

IS - 3

ER -