Long-Term Consequences of Acute Kidney Injury After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review

Jef Van den Eynde, Hajar Rotbi, Art Schuermans, Ali Fatehi Hassanabad, Marc Gewillig, Werner Budts, Shelby Kutty, Djalila Mekahli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the available data on long-term kidney dysfunction, hypertension, and mortality after cardiac surgery–associated acute kidney injury (AKI) in the pediatric population. Study design: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for eligible studies published from inception through March 2022. Long-term outcomes after pediatric cardiac surgery complicated by AKI and those without were investigated. Results: We identified 14 studies published between 2013 and 2022 that included a total of 6701 patients (AKI: 1376 patients; no AKI: 5325 patients). These studies used different well-established classifications to define AKI. All the studies suggested that AKI after heart surgery is common in the pediatric patient population and reported a potential link between cardiac surgery–associated AKI and important clinical outcomes. However, only 4 out of 11 studies found a strong association between (absence of recovery from) cardiac surgery–associated AKI and risk of developing chronic kidney disease, and 3 out of 5 studies found a significant increase in mortality rates for pediatric patients who developed AKI after cardiac surgery. Only 1 out of 4 studies found an association between AKI and hypertension at 12 months postoperatively, but found no association at later follow-up times. Conclusions: Although there is a trend, evidence on the long-term consequences of cardiac surgery-associated AKI in the pediatric population is mixed. Genetic syndromes, preexisting kidney disease, univentricular or cyanotic heart conditions, and/or high-complexity surgery may be more important for the development of kidney dysfunction by adolescence and early adulthood. Regardless, these children may benefit from a long-term kidney follow-up.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-92.e5
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • acute kidney injury
  • cardiac surgery
  • chronic kidney disease
  • outcomes
  • systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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