Background. B cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) and liver rejection are major lethal complications after hepatic transplantation. Reduction in immunosuppression is the treatment for the former, but is a risk factor for the latter. Methods. Here, we report three consecutive children with monoclonal LPD complicating orthotopic liver transplantation. All of them were treated with brief (<4 months) but intensive chemotherapy. Results. These three patients have remained in complete remission for LPD for 18 months to more than 3 years. Aggressive antimicrobial prophylaxis was successful in preventing life-threatening infections. The patient who received the highest cumulative doses of chemotherapy may have also developed relative immune tolerance to the allograft. Conclusions. High-dose-intensity chemotherapy may be effective in the treatment of monoclonal LPD, as well as in the induction of immune tolerance for the prevention of allograft rejection and LPD recurrence.
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