Long-COVID syndrome-associated brain fog and chemofog: Luteolin to the rescue

Theoharis C. Theoharides, Christos Cholevas, Konstantinos Polyzoidis, Antonios Politis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. These processes could be mitigated by phytosomal formulation (in olive pomace oil) of the natural flavonoid luteolin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)232-241
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • brain fog
  • chemotherapy
  • coronavirus
  • cytokines
  • fatigue
  • inflammation
  • mast cells
  • microglia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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