In Total Hip Replacement (THR) procedures, misalignment of the acetabular component can lead to dislocation and impingement. For the successful alignment of acetabular component, precise estimation of pelvic anatomical coordinate system is necessary. Conventional navigation systems use CT scan or fluoroscopy, or involve implanted bone fiducials or invasive probing of bony landmarks to locate the anatomical coordinate. In this paper, an ultrasound-based approach is proposed that exploits prior knowledge about the anatomy of the pelvis in the form of a 3D surface atlas. Tracked ultrasound images are utilized to extract sample points from the surface of the pelvis. A generic coordinate system in the specific patient is localized by registering these points to a statistical atlas of the pelvis in which a canonical anatomical coordinate system had been defined. This technique has been evaluated using simulation, dry bone, and cadaver experiments and was able to localize the anatomical coordinate system with the accuracy of about 1 degree.