Local infusion therapy in the monkey brainstem: technical considerations.

George I. Jallo, Marc Becker, Y. J. Liu, Benjamin S. Carson, Michael Guarnieri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This chapter assesses the safety of freehand placement of an infusion catheter (outer diameter, 0.3 mm) in brainstems of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for local infusion therapy. A posterior midline approach through the cerebellum and roof of the fourth ventricle was used to implant catheters into a pontine target area. Computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histology were used to examine the position of the implants. The freehand placement of a catheter resulted in approximately 5-mm variations in anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral locations of the targeted implantation site. No evidence of morbidity from the surgery, or from the infusion process was present. In conclusion, small-diameter catheters for chronic drug infusions can be implanted safely into the brainstem, an eloquent region that has been considered surgically inoperable. Infusion systems may offer a minimally invasive, generally applicable tool to provide chronic therapy for central nervous system (CNS) lesions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-316
Number of pages6
JournalSurgical technology international
StatePublished - 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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